Lithium therapy can cause a confusional state by direct toxicity, precipitation of nonconvulsive status epilepticus, or by interplay with other neuroleptic medications to produce neuroleptic malignant syndrome or serotonin syndrome. These conditions resemble each other clinically, but EEG may help differentiate among them. We reviewed the EEG patterns with triphasic waves or rhythmic delta activity in lithium toxic patients and discuss clinical and EEG differentiation among syndromes. Lithium toxicity poses significant diagnostic challenges from EEG and clinical perspectives.
- Confusional states
- Nonconvulsive status epilepticus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology