Lipid rafts and HIV pathogenesis

Host membrane cholesterol is required for infection by HIV type 1

Zhaohao Liao, L. M. Cimakasky, R. Hampton, D. H. Nguyen, J. E K Hildreth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In a previous study we showed that budding of HIV-1 particles occurs at highly specialized membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts. These microdomains are characterized by a distinct lipid composition that includes high concentrations of cholesterol, sphingolipids, and glycolipids. Since cholesterol is known to play a key role in the entry of some other viruses, our observation of HIV budding from lipid rafts led us to investigate the role in HIV-1 entry of cholesterol and lipid rafts in the plasma membrane of susceptible cells. We have used 2-OH-propyl-β-cyclodextrin (β-cyclodextrin) to deplete cellular cholesterol and disperse lipid rafts. Our results show that removal of cellular cholesterol rendered primary cells and cell lines highly resistant to HIV-1-mediated syncytium formation and to infection by both CXCR4- and CCR5-specific viruses. β-Cyclodextrin treatment of cells partially reduced HIV-1 binding, while rendering chemokine receptors highly sensitive to antibody-mediated internalization. There was no effect on CD4 expression. All of the above-described effects were readily reversed by incubating cholesterol-depleted cells with low concentrations of cholesterol-loaded β-cyclodextrin to restore cholesterol levels. Cholesterol depletion made cells resistant to SDF-1-induced binding to ICAM-1 through LFA-1. Since LFA-1 contributes significantly to cell binding by HIV-1, this latter effect may have contributed to the observed reduction in HIV-1 binding to cells after treatment with β-cyclodextrin. Our results indicate that cholesterol may be critical to the HIV-1 coreceptor function of chemokine receptors and is required for infection of cells by HIV-1.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1009-1019
Number of pages11
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Volume17
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001

Fingerprint

HIV-1
Cholesterol
HIV
Lipids
Membranes
Infection
Cyclodextrins
Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1
Chemokine Receptors
Membrane Microdomains
Viruses
Sphingolipids
Glycolipids
Giant Cells
Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
Cell Membrane
Observation
Cell Line
Antibodies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology

Cite this

Lipid rafts and HIV pathogenesis : Host membrane cholesterol is required for infection by HIV type 1. / Liao, Zhaohao; Cimakasky, L. M.; Hampton, R.; Nguyen, D. H.; Hildreth, J. E K.

In: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, Vol. 17, No. 11, 2001, p. 1009-1019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liao, Zhaohao ; Cimakasky, L. M. ; Hampton, R. ; Nguyen, D. H. ; Hildreth, J. E K. / Lipid rafts and HIV pathogenesis : Host membrane cholesterol is required for infection by HIV type 1. In: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 2001 ; Vol. 17, No. 11. pp. 1009-1019.
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