During the past four decades, amphotericin B deoxycholate has been the cornerstone of systemic chemotherapy for life-threatening fungal infections. Despite a broad spectrum of antifungal activity, its utility is greatly hampered by renal toxicity and limited clinical efficacy, in particular in patients with profound and persistent neutropenia. The novel lipid formulations of amphotericin B have distinct physicochemical properties resulting in different distribution patterns. Nevertheless, they all share a considerable reduction of nephrotoxicity, which allows for the delivery of higher daily dosages of amphotericin B. Preliminary efficacy data indicate that these compounds are overall at least as effective as amphotericin B deoxycholate. However, information for children is limited, and comparative studies for their use as first line agents are only in their beginnings. In this article, we review the clinical pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of the lipid formulations of amphotericin B with special emphasis on pediatric data, and we seek to provide a rational framework for the determination of their current role in patients with cancer and proven or suspected invasive fungal infections.
- Amphotericin B
- Antifungal agents
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health