Linical pharmacology of antifungal agents to overcome drug resistance in pediatric patients

Theodouli Stergiopoulou, Thomas J. Walsh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Introduction: Antifungal resistance is an emerging problem that increases morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed pediatric patients, who suffer from invasive fungal diseases. Optimal pharmacological management is critical for the successful treatment of invasive fungal infections by resistant strains. Areas covered: This paper reviews the mechanisms of resistance of different classes of antifungal agents and the current understanding of pediatric antifungal pharmacology for overcoming antifungal resistance in children based on laboratory and clinical studies in the English literature. The therapeutic choices against fungal pathogens with intrinsic or acquired resistance are further reviewed. Expert opinion: There is a paucity of data in the pediatric population regarding the epidemiology of the resistant organisms to different antifungal agents. It is also unknown if there are more prevalent molecular mechanisms that promote antifungal resistance. Selection and dosages of the most effective antifungal agent for overcoming the antifungal resistance is crucial. However, there are limited studies guiding the optimal dosage and duration of treatment for management of emergent antifungal resistance. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the optimal pharmacology of the current antifungal agents against resistant organisms and to advance the development of new antifungal agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)213-226
Number of pages14
JournalExpert opinion on pharmacotherapy
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015


  • Antifungal agents in pediatric population
  • Antifungal resistance
  • Invasive aspergillosis
  • Invasive candidiasis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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