Levels of representation, co-ordinate frames, and unilateral neglect

Alfonso Caramazzas, Argye E. Hillis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

221 Scopus citations


We describe the performance of a brain-damaged subject, NG, who made reading errors only on the right half of words. This problem persisted even when the subject had demonstrated accurate recognition of the letters in a stimulus through naming all the letters. Furthermore, the spatially determined reading impairment was unaffected by topographic transformations of stimuli: identical performance was obtained for stimuli presented in horizontal, vertical, and mirror-reversed form. The same pattern of errors was also obtained in all forms of spelling tasks: written spelling, oral spelling, and backward oral spelling. The performance of the subject is interpreted in the context of a multi-stage model of the word recognition process. It is concluded that the locus of the deficit responsible for NG's reading impairment is at a stage of processing where word-centred grapheme representations are computed. The spatially determined pattern of performance reported for NG, as well as other patterns observed for other brain-damaged subjects, are interpreted as providing support for the proposed multi-stage model of word recognition. The more general implications of the reported results for models of visual processing and attention are also considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)391-445
Number of pages55
JournalCognitive neuropsychology
Issue number5-6
StatePublished - Nov 1 1990
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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