The authors examined 117 consecutive patients with acute leukemia within a few days of diagnosis. Sixty-six patients had acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, and 51 had acute lymphocytic leukemia. Forty-two percent of the patients had abnormal ocular findings related to leukemia. The authors found an association between the presence of intraretinal hemorrhages and thrombocytopenia for all patients. In addition, patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia and intraretinal hemorrhages had lower hematocrit levels than did those without such hemorrhage. The presence of anemia was related to the findings of whitecentered hemorrhages in patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. The presence of cotton-wool spots was not associated with hematologic parameters. Intraretinal hemorrhages, white-centered hemorrhages, and cotton-wool spots were all found more frequently in adults than in children.
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