Lennox-Gastaut syndrome symptomatic to hypothalamic hamartoma: Evolution and long-term outcome following surgery

Sandipan Pati, Aman Deep, Matthew M. Troester, Eric H. Kossoff, Yu Tze Ng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Background: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a catastrophic childhood cryptogenic or symptomatic epilepsy. Hypothalamic hamartomas cause refractory epilepsy often consistent with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Methods: Children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome were defined by a triad of multiple generalized seizure types, slow spike-and-wave on EEG, and mental retardation. Results: Twenty-one of 159 hypothalamic hamartoma patients (14%) met the diagnostic criteria of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. The median age of patients at epilepsy onset was 0.9 years (range, birth to 9 years). Six of the 21 patients (28%) had preceding infantile spasms. All patients underwent different surgical approaches, including endoscopic, transcallosal, orbitozygomatic resections, and radiosurgery treatment. Five of the 21 (24%) were seizure free with an additional 9 (42%) having at least >90% seizure reduction. Only 1 patient was not effectively treated (<50% seizure reduction). Eighty-eight percent of parents reported improvement in behavioral functioning. Shorter duration of epilepsy prior to surgery was a significant predictor of surgical outcome. Conclusions: Patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome symptomatic to hypothalamic hamartomas have better postsurgical outcome due to other etiologies compared with cryptogenic and symptomatic Lennox-Gastaut syndrome patients. However, compared with overall hypothalamic hamartomas postsurgical outcomes, this cohort was less favorable. Earlier surgery may lead to better outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-30
Number of pages6
JournalPediatric Neurology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Neurology
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology


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