A family with X-linked hydrocephalus with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and in which three brothers and a grandson of case 1, a proband, were affected is reported. The symptoms at onset were epileptic attacks that started in adulthood in the three brothers and at the age of 6 years in the grandson. In the three brothers, from 10 to 27 years after the onset of epileptic episodes, disorganization of intelligence and psychiatric deterioration were gradually noticed by their families. At the same time, they showed occasional urinary incontinence. Brain computed tomography (CT) scans revealed dilatation of the ventricular systems. Based on the results of the measurement of CSF pressure and radioactive-iodinated human serum albumin (RISA)-cysternography, two of the brothers were diagnosed as having normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), and they were treated neurosurgically. However, no obvious improvement in clinical symptoms was observed. Although the grandson had shown normal psychomotor development during his early childhood, temporal epilepsy and temper tantrums started at the age of 6 years. Computed tomography-scanning revealed dilatation of the ventricular system similar to the other three cases at the age of 8 years. With the diagnosis of NPH, the patient underwent a shunt operation, which resulted in no obvious effects. As it is reasonable to surmise that the pathological gene would have been transferred via the daughter of the proband to the grandson, it is suggested that the inheritance manner might be X-linked recessive. The cases presented here are different from the cases of hydrocephalus due to stenosis of the aqueduct Sylvius (HSAS) and other types of X-linked hydrocephalus reported previously in terms of the age of onset, course, symptoms, and CT findings. Thus, it is suggested that the present cases might be a new type of X-linked hydrocephalus.
- Normal pressure hydrocephalus
- X-linked hydrocephalus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Psychiatry and Mental health