The use of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) for hematopoietic rescue after high-dose chemotherapy is limited by the number of leukaphereses required to collect an adequate number of hematopoietic progenitors. To optimize the collection of PBPC, we evaluated a single large-volume leukapheresis protocol with citrate anticoagulation. A group of 23 patients received cyclophosphamide (4 g/m2) and GM-CSF (5 μg/kg/day for 15 days) as PBPC mobilization, with a single outpatient 6 h leukapheresis performed on the COBE Spectra 15 days later. Citrate (0.190 mmol/ml) was infused at 1.2 ml/L of blood/minute with a whole blood to citrate ratio between 17:1 and 25:1. Calcium chloride (50 mM) was administered at a citrate to calcium molar ratio between 10:1 and 5:1 to prevent hypocalcemia. A median 36.6 L (range 24.4–46.4) blood was processed using 338 mM citrate (269–473) and 50 mM calcium (25–75). A median 5 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg (<0.3–24) and 6.2 × 105 CFU-GM/kg (<0.001–29) were collected, representing 5.6 and 5.9 more PBPC, respectively, than were in circulation at the initiation of leukapheresis. We conclude that a 6 h large-volume leukapheresis following cyclophosphamide and GM-CSF mobilization is safe, can recruit hematopoietic progenitors into the circulatory compartment, and allows the collection of high numbers of PBPC in a single procedure.
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