Large-scale functional network overlap is a general property of brain functional organization: Reconciling inconsistent fMRI findings from general-linear-model-based analyses

Jiansong Xu, Marc N. Potenza, Vince Daniel Calhoun, Rubin Zhang, Sarah W. Yip, John T. Wall, Godfrey D. Pearlson, Patrick D. Worhunsky, Kathleen A. Garrison, Joseph M. Moran

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies regularly use univariate general-linear-model-based analyses (GLM). Their findings are often inconsistent across different studies, perhaps because of several fundamental brain properties including functional heterogeneity, balanced excitation and inhibition (E/I), and sparseness of neuronal activities. These properties stipulate heterogeneous neuronal activities in the same voxels and likely limit the sensitivity and specificity of GLM. This paper selectively reviews findings of histological and electrophysiological studies and fMRI spatial independent component analysis (sICA) and reports new findings by applying sICA to two existing datasets. The extant and new findings consistently demonstrate several novel features of brain functional organization not revealed by GLM. They include overlap of large-scale functional networks (FNs) and their concurrent opposite modulations, and no significant modulations in activity of most FNs across the whole brain during any task conditions. These novel features of brain functional organization are highly consistent with the brain's properties of functional heterogeneity, balanced E/I, and sparseness of neuronal activity, and may help reconcile inconsistent GLM findings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)83-100
Number of pages18
JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Volume71
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Balanced excitation and inhibition
  • Default mode network
  • fMRI
  • Functional network overlap
  • GLM
  • ICA
  • Sparseness of neuronal activity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

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