Laboratory technical advances in the diagnosis of clostridium difficile

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a spore-forming, anaerobic, gram positive rod that colonizes the colon of 5 % of healthy adults and 30-70 % of healthy infants [1]. The organism can also be found in a variety of environmental sources including soil, river water, domestic animals, and home and healthcare environments [2]. C. difficile acquired its name from the observations by Hall and O'Toole [3] in the difficulty of isolating the organism because of its slow growth (doubling time 40-70 min) compared to other Clostridium spp. During logarithmic growth, when vegetative cells predominate, the organism is very aerointolerant. In 1978, prior knowledge of the organism and the observation that antibiotic associated diarrhea was associated with a cytotoxin in the hamster model, converged in the work by Bartlett et al. that demonstrated that C. difficile caused disease in humans through the elaboration of a cytotoxin [2, 4, 5]. Later it was established that the organism produces two toxins, toxin A, a 308 kDa enterotoxin and toxin B, a 270 kDa cytotoxin. Both toxins cause disease by glycosylating small GTPases such as Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 in the cell [2, 6]. Glycosylation of these small proteins disrupts signaling pathways causing irreversible changes in cellular morphology and consequent inhibition of cell division and membrane trafficking, leading to cell death [2, 6].

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology
PublisherSpringer US
Pages769-783
Number of pages15
Volume9781461439707
ISBN (Print)9781461439707, 1461439698, 9781461439691
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

Fingerprint

Clostridium difficile
Cytotoxins
Gram-Positive Rods
Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins
Clostridium
Enterotoxins
Domestic Animals
Growth
Spores
Glycosylation
Rivers
Cricetinae
Cell Division
Names
Diarrhea
Colon
Cell Death
Soil
Cell Membrane
Anti-Bacterial Agents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)

Cite this

Carroll, K. C. (2013). Laboratory technical advances in the diagnosis of clostridium difficile. In Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology (Vol. 9781461439707, pp. 769-783). Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3970-7_40

Laboratory technical advances in the diagnosis of clostridium difficile. / Carroll, Karen C.

Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology. Vol. 9781461439707 Springer US, 2013. p. 769-783.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Carroll, KC 2013, Laboratory technical advances in the diagnosis of clostridium difficile. in Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology. vol. 9781461439707, Springer US, pp. 769-783. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3970-7_40
Carroll KC. Laboratory technical advances in the diagnosis of clostridium difficile. In Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology. Vol. 9781461439707. Springer US. 2013. p. 769-783 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3970-7_40
Carroll, Karen C. / Laboratory technical advances in the diagnosis of clostridium difficile. Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology. Vol. 9781461439707 Springer US, 2013. pp. 769-783
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