Lab-based and diagnosis-based chronic kidney disease recognition and staging concordance

Clarissa J. Diamantidis, Sarah L. Hale, Virginia Wang, Valerie A. Smith, Sarah Hudson Scholle, Matthew L. Maciejewski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often under-recognized and poorly documented via diagnoses, but the extent of under-recognition is not well understood among Medicare beneficiaries. The current study used claims-based diagnosis and lab data to examine patient factors associated with clinically recognized CKD and CKD stage concordance between claims- and lab-based sources in a cohort of Medicare beneficiaries. Methods: In a cohort of fee-for-service (FFS) beneficiaries with CKD based on 2011 labs, we examined the proportion with clinically recognized CKD via diagnoses and factors associated with clinical recognition in logistic regression. In the subset of beneficiaries with CKD stage identified from both labs and diagnoses, we examined concordance in CKD stage from both sources, and factors independently associated with CKD stage concordance in logistic regression. Results: Among the subset of 206,036 beneficiaries with lab-based CKD, only 11.8% (n = 24,286) had clinically recognized CKD via diagnoses. Clinical recognition was more likely for beneficiaries who had higher CKD stages, were non-elderly, were Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black, lived in core metropolitan areas, had multiple chronic conditions or outpatient visits in 2010, or saw a nephrologist. In the subset of 18,749 beneficiaries with CKD stage identified from both labs and diagnoses, 70.0% had concordant CKD stage, which was more likely if beneficiaries were older adults, male, lived in micropolitan areas instead of non-core areas, or saw a nephrologist. Conclusions: There is significant under-diagnosis of CKD in Medicare FFS beneficiaries, which can be addressed with the availability of lab results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number357
JournalBMC nephrology
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 14 2019
Externally publishedYes

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Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Medicare
Fee-for-Service Plans
Logistic Models
Hispanic Americans
Outpatients

Keywords

  • Beneficiary
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Medicare
  • Nephrology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

Cite this

Lab-based and diagnosis-based chronic kidney disease recognition and staging concordance. / Diamantidis, Clarissa J.; Hale, Sarah L.; Wang, Virginia; Smith, Valerie A.; Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Maciejewski, Matthew L.

In: BMC nephrology, Vol. 20, No. 1, 357, 14.09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Diamantidis, Clarissa J. ; Hale, Sarah L. ; Wang, Virginia ; Smith, Valerie A. ; Scholle, Sarah Hudson ; Maciejewski, Matthew L. / Lab-based and diagnosis-based chronic kidney disease recognition and staging concordance. In: BMC nephrology. 2019 ; Vol. 20, No. 1.
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AB - Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often under-recognized and poorly documented via diagnoses, but the extent of under-recognition is not well understood among Medicare beneficiaries. The current study used claims-based diagnosis and lab data to examine patient factors associated with clinically recognized CKD and CKD stage concordance between claims- and lab-based sources in a cohort of Medicare beneficiaries. Methods: In a cohort of fee-for-service (FFS) beneficiaries with CKD based on 2011 labs, we examined the proportion with clinically recognized CKD via diagnoses and factors associated with clinical recognition in logistic regression. In the subset of beneficiaries with CKD stage identified from both labs and diagnoses, we examined concordance in CKD stage from both sources, and factors independently associated with CKD stage concordance in logistic regression. Results: Among the subset of 206,036 beneficiaries with lab-based CKD, only 11.8% (n = 24,286) had clinically recognized CKD via diagnoses. Clinical recognition was more likely for beneficiaries who had higher CKD stages, were non-elderly, were Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black, lived in core metropolitan areas, had multiple chronic conditions or outpatient visits in 2010, or saw a nephrologist. In the subset of 18,749 beneficiaries with CKD stage identified from both labs and diagnoses, 70.0% had concordant CKD stage, which was more likely if beneficiaries were older adults, male, lived in micropolitan areas instead of non-core areas, or saw a nephrologist. Conclusions: There is significant under-diagnosis of CKD in Medicare FFS beneficiaries, which can be addressed with the availability of lab results.

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