Kudoa sp. (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) in skeletal muscle of captive bullnose eagle rays, myliobatis freminvillei (Rajiformes: Myliobatidae)

Catherine A. Hadfield, Sarah L. Poynton, Leigh A. Clayton, Jennell L. Romero, Richard J. Montali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Kudoa spp. (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) are of significant concern in marine and estuarine teleosts because of trophozoites and spores in the skeletal muscle reducing the marketability of wild and cultured fish. Kudoa spp. have rarely been reported from elasmobranchs. Spores of a Kudoa sp. were identified in two captive, mature bullnose eagle rays (Myliobatis freminvillei) (Rajiformes: Myliobatidae). The male bullnose eagle ray (case 1) showed intractable weight loss, muscle wasting, and hyperkalemia, and was euthanized. The skeletal muscle showed myofiber degeneration, vacuolation, and necrosis, and spores of a Kudoa sp. were present multifocally through the muscle. The female bullnose eagle ray (case 2) had a severe, rapidly progressive, erosive lesion extending through the pectoral fin and was euthanized. Spores of a Kudoa sp. were not found in the lesion but were present in two disparate sections of skeletal muscle. There was no inflammation or degeneration associated with the infected myofibers in case 2. From case 1, morphometrics of 15 spores in histologic section were apical width 6.5-8.0 μm, apical thickness 5.0-7.0 μm, lateral width 5.5-6.5 μm, length 4.5-6.5 μm; the equal-sized polar capsules were spherical, 1.5-2.5 μm in diameter; there was a clear halo 2 μm thick around the spores, considered to be a mucous envelope. Spores from case 2 were indistinguishable from those in case 1. This appears to be the first report of Kudoa sp. in bullnose eagle rays.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)896-905
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2014


  • Bullnose eagle ray
  • Kudoa
  • Myliobatis freminvillei
  • Myliobatis freminvillii
  • Myxozoa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)


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