Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to salt consumption in Nepal: Findings from the community-based management of non-communicable diseases project in Nepal (COBIN)

Kamal Ghimire, Tara Ballav Adhikari, Anupa Rijal, Per Kallestrup, Megan Henry, Dinesh Neupane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

High salt/sodium intake is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This paper aims to examine the association between salt consumption and salt-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in Nepal. The cross-sectional data used in this study were collected as part of the community-based management of non-communicable diseases project (COBIN) to understand the amount and KAP related to salt consumption in Nepal. Multivariate hierarchical logistic regression was performed to assess the association of salt-related KAP and determinants of high salt consumption in Nepal. The mean per capita salt intake was 8.0 (±3.7) g/day, with 81.6% of the population reporting higher intake than the WHO recommendation of <5 g/day. People of upper castes [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5-0.9], people in large families (aOR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.5-0.7), respondents who were advised to lower salt intake (aOR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) and who checked salt/sodium labels in food (aOR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) were less likely to consume higher amounts of salt. Similarly, people who added extra salt to their food at the table (aOR = 1.4; 95 CI: 1.1-1.9) and who reported consuming high amounts of salt (aOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3) were more likely to have high salt intake. High salt intake was documented in this population. This study suggests the need for culturally tailored community-based behavior modification through health education and dietary counseling to effectively reduce salt consumption and thereby support a reduction in hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Nepal.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Clinical Hypertension
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Nepal
Salts
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Cardiovascular Diseases
Sodium
Hypertension
Food
Behavior Therapy

Keywords

  • attitudes
  • blood pressure
  • dietary salt
  • hypertension
  • knowledge
  • Nepal
  • practices
  • salt consumption
  • sodium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

@article{0336ed3981624018b81f9731822a693a,
title = "Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to salt consumption in Nepal: Findings from the community-based management of non-communicable diseases project in Nepal (COBIN)",
abstract = "High salt/sodium intake is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This paper aims to examine the association between salt consumption and salt-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in Nepal. The cross-sectional data used in this study were collected as part of the community-based management of non-communicable diseases project (COBIN) to understand the amount and KAP related to salt consumption in Nepal. Multivariate hierarchical logistic regression was performed to assess the association of salt-related KAP and determinants of high salt consumption in Nepal. The mean per capita salt intake was 8.0 (±3.7) g/day, with 81.6{\%} of the population reporting higher intake than the WHO recommendation of <5 g/day. People of upper castes [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.7; 95{\%} confidence interval (CI): 0.5-0.9], people in large families (aOR = 0.6; 95{\%} CI: 0.5-0.7), respondents who were advised to lower salt intake (aOR = 0.6; 95{\%} CI: 0.4-0.9) and who checked salt/sodium labels in food (aOR = 0.6; 95{\%} CI: 0.4-0.9) were less likely to consume higher amounts of salt. Similarly, people who added extra salt to their food at the table (aOR = 1.4; 95 CI: 1.1-1.9) and who reported consuming high amounts of salt (aOR = 1.5; 95{\%} CI: 1.1-2.3) were more likely to have high salt intake. High salt intake was documented in this population. This study suggests the need for culturally tailored community-based behavior modification through health education and dietary counseling to effectively reduce salt consumption and thereby support a reduction in hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Nepal.",
keywords = "attitudes, blood pressure, dietary salt, hypertension, knowledge, Nepal, practices, salt consumption, sodium",
author = "Kamal Ghimire and Adhikari, {Tara Ballav} and Anupa Rijal and Per Kallestrup and Megan Henry and Dinesh Neupane",
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AU - Rijal, Anupa

AU - Kallestrup, Per

AU - Henry, Megan

AU - Neupane, Dinesh

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N2 - High salt/sodium intake is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This paper aims to examine the association between salt consumption and salt-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in Nepal. The cross-sectional data used in this study were collected as part of the community-based management of non-communicable diseases project (COBIN) to understand the amount and KAP related to salt consumption in Nepal. Multivariate hierarchical logistic regression was performed to assess the association of salt-related KAP and determinants of high salt consumption in Nepal. The mean per capita salt intake was 8.0 (±3.7) g/day, with 81.6% of the population reporting higher intake than the WHO recommendation of <5 g/day. People of upper castes [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5-0.9], people in large families (aOR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.5-0.7), respondents who were advised to lower salt intake (aOR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) and who checked salt/sodium labels in food (aOR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) were less likely to consume higher amounts of salt. Similarly, people who added extra salt to their food at the table (aOR = 1.4; 95 CI: 1.1-1.9) and who reported consuming high amounts of salt (aOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3) were more likely to have high salt intake. High salt intake was documented in this population. This study suggests the need for culturally tailored community-based behavior modification through health education and dietary counseling to effectively reduce salt consumption and thereby support a reduction in hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Nepal.

AB - High salt/sodium intake is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This paper aims to examine the association between salt consumption and salt-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in Nepal. The cross-sectional data used in this study were collected as part of the community-based management of non-communicable diseases project (COBIN) to understand the amount and KAP related to salt consumption in Nepal. Multivariate hierarchical logistic regression was performed to assess the association of salt-related KAP and determinants of high salt consumption in Nepal. The mean per capita salt intake was 8.0 (±3.7) g/day, with 81.6% of the population reporting higher intake than the WHO recommendation of <5 g/day. People of upper castes [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5-0.9], people in large families (aOR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.5-0.7), respondents who were advised to lower salt intake (aOR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) and who checked salt/sodium labels in food (aOR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) were less likely to consume higher amounts of salt. Similarly, people who added extra salt to their food at the table (aOR = 1.4; 95 CI: 1.1-1.9) and who reported consuming high amounts of salt (aOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3) were more likely to have high salt intake. High salt intake was documented in this population. This study suggests the need for culturally tailored community-based behavior modification through health education and dietary counseling to effectively reduce salt consumption and thereby support a reduction in hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Nepal.

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