Knowing more of the iceberg: How detecting a greater proportion of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae carriers influences transmission

Sarah M. Bartsch, Kim F. Wong, Owen J. Stokes-Cawley, James A. McKinnell, Chenghua Cao, Gabrielle M. Gussin, Leslie E. Mueller, Diane S. Kim, Loren G. Miller, Susan S. Huang, Bruce Y. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background. Clinical testing detects a fraction of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) carriers. Detecting a greater proportion could lead to increased use of infection prevention and control measures but requires resources. Therefore, it is important to understand the impact of detecting increasing proportions of CRE carriers. Methods. We used our Regional Healthcare Ecosystem Analyst–generated agent-based model of adult inpatient healthcare facilities in Orange County, California, to explore the impact that detecting greater proportions of carriers has on the spread of CRE. Results. Detecting and placing 1 in 9 carriers on contact precautions increased the prevalence of CRE from 0% to 8.0% countywide over 10 years. Increasing the proportion of detected carriers from 1 in 9 up to 1 in 5 yielded linear reductions in transmission; at proportions >1 in 5, reductions were greater than linear. Transmission reductions did not occur for 1, 4, or 5 years, varying by facility type. With a contact precautions effectiveness of ≤70%, the detection level yielding nonlinear reductions remained unchanged; with an effectiveness of >80%, detecting only 1 in 5 carriers garnered large reductions in the number of new CRE carriers. Trends held when CRE was already present in the region. Conclusion. Although detection of all carriers provided the most benefits for preventing new CRE carriers, if this is not feasible, it may be worthwhile to aim for detecting >1 in 5 carriers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1782-1794
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume221
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - 2020

Keywords

  • Burden
  • CRE
  • Detection
  • Iceberg
  • Unknown carriers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases

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