The optimal type and timing of specimens to study the immune responses to cold-adapted influenza vaccine (CAIV) and shedding of vaccine virus are not well established. Healthy adults were vaccinated with CAIV (n = 10) or trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) (n = 5). Shedding of vaccine strain influenza B was detected by culture in 6 of 10 CAIV recipients; influenza A was also detected in one of these subjects. Viral shedding by quantitative RT-PCR was detected in 9 of 10 subjects. We detected a ≥2-fold increase in influenza-specific IgA in nasal wash in 80-100% of CAIV recipients following vaccination, but specific IgG increased in neither nasal wash nor saliva. Recipients of TIV had significant increases in specific serum IgG antibodies. Recipients of both CAIV and TIV had significant increases in IFNγ-secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs from subjects receiving CAIV showed a higher proportion of functional, tissue-tropic T-cells (CD4+CD69+CD18+MIP1α+) specific for homotypic and heterosubtypic strains of influenza by flow cytometry.
- Cold-adapted influenza vaccine
- Vaccine virus shedding
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases