Protein tyrosine kinases catalyze the transfer of the γ-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine residues in proteins and are important enzymes in cell signal transduction. We have investigated the catalytic phosphoryl transfer transition state of a protein tyrosine kinase reaction catalyzed by Csk by analyzing a series of fluorotyrosine-containing peptide substrates. It was established for five such fluorotyrosine-containing peptide substrates that there is good agreement between the tyrosine analogue phenol pK(a) and the ionizable group responsible for the basic limb of a pH rate profile analysis. This indicates that the substrate tyrosine phenol must be neutral to be enzymatically active. Taken together with previous data indicating a small β(nucleophile) coefficient (0-0.1), these results strongly support a dissociative transition state for phosphoryl transfer. In addition, the β(leaving group) coefficient was measured for the reverse protein tyrosine kinase reaction and shown to be -0.3. This value is in good agreement with a previously reported nonenzymatic model phosphoryl transfer reaction carried out under acidic conditions (pH 4) and is most readily explained by a transition state with significant proton transfer to the departing phenol.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry