Kidney Measures with Diabetes and Hypertension on Cardiovascular Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

Nadine Alexander, Kunihiro Matsushita, Yingying Sang, Shoshana Ballew, Bakhtawar K. Mahmoodi, Brad C. Astor, Josef Coresh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Whether the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with cardiovascular risk differs based on diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) status remains unanswered. Methods: We investigated 11,050 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (fourth examination (1996-1998)) with follow-up for cardiovascular outcomes (coronary disease, heart failure and stroke) through 2009. Using the Cox regression models, we quantified cardiovascular risk associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) in individuals with and without DM and/or HTN and assessed their interactions. Results: Individuals with DM and HTN generally had higher cardiovascular risk relative to those without at all the levels of eGFR and ACR. Cardiovascular risk increased with lower eGFR and higher ACR regardless of DM and HTN status (e.g. adjusted hazards ratio (HR) for eGFR 30-44 vs. 90-104 ml/min/1.73 m2, 2.32 (95% CI, 1.66-3.26) in non-diabetics vs. 1.83 (1.25-2.67) in diabetics and 2.45 (2.20-5.01) in non-hypertensives vs. 1.51 (1.27-1.81) in hypertensives and corresponding adjusted HR for ACR 30-299 vs. <10 mg/g, 1.70 (1.45-2.00) vs. 1.34 (1.10-1.64) and 1.42 (1.10-1.85) vs. 1.57 (1.36-1.81), respectively). Only the ACR-DM interaction reached significance, with a shallower relative risk gradient among diabetics than among non-diabetics (p = 0.02). Analysis of individual cardiovascular outcomes showed similar results. Conclusion: Although individuals with DM and HTN generally had higher cardiovascular risk relative to those without these complications, both low eGFR and high ACR were associated with cardiovascular diseases regardless of the presence or absence of DM and HTN. These findings reinforce the importance of CKD in cardiovascular outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)409-417
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Nephrology
Volume41
Issue number4-5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 25 2015

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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