Kidney biomarkers associated with blood lead, mercury, and cadmium in premenopausal women: A prospective cohort study

Anna Z. Pollack, Sunni L. Mumford, Pauline Mendola, Neil J. Perkins, Yaron Rotman, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Enrique F. Schisterman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Certain metals are harmful to the kidney and liver at high levels, but associations with functional biomarkers at low exposure levels among premenopausal women apparently has not been evaluated. Healthy, regularly menstruating women (n = 259) were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles with up to 16 visits. Renal and liver biomarkers were measured in serum at each clinic visit. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) were measured in whole blood at baseline. Linear mixed models were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), race, average calories, alcohol intake, smoking, and cycle day. Median levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg were 0.31 g/L, 0.88 μg/dl, and 1.1 μg/L, respectively. One-third of women had diminished glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (2). Each twofold increase in Cd was associated with a negative 4.9% change in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bilirubin. Each twofold rise in Pb was associated with decreased eGFR and increased creatinine. A twofold elevation in Hg was associated with higher protein and reduced alkaline phosphatase. In healthy, predominantly nonsmoking women, low levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg were associated with changes in select biomarkers of kidney and liver function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)119-131
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues
Volume78
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 17 2015
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Toxicology
  • Medicine(all)

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