Ketorolac tromethamine - Routes and clinical implications

Nalini Vadivelu, Anusha M. Gowda, Richard D. Urman, Suneil Jolly, Vijay Kodumudi, Monisa Maria, Robert Taylor, Joseph V. Pergolizzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Opioids have long been used for analgesic purposes for a wide range of procedures. However, the binding of these drugs to opiate receptors has created various challenges to the clinician due to unfavorable side effect profiles and the potential for tolerance and abuse. In 1989, ketorolac became an approved nonsteroidal inflammatory drug (NSAID) for injectable use as an analgesic. Over the last 20 years, numerous studies have been conducted involving ketorolac. These studies have provided additional information about various routes of administration and their effect on the efficacy and the side effect profile of ketorolac. Moreover, ketorolac has been compared with several widely used analgesics. This review evaluates both the potential benefits and potential drawbacks of ketorolac generally, and specifically discusses routes of administration, including their advantages and disadvantages when compared to several traditional analgesics in both inpatient and outpatient settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)175-193
Number of pages19
JournalPain Practice
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015


  • Analgesia
  • Analgesic, nonopioid
  • Ketorolac
  • Postoperative pain
  • Review
  • Route of administration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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