Ionizing radiation and kidney cancer among Japanese atomic bomb survivors

David B. Richardson, Ghassan Hamra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Understanding of the role of radiation as a cause of kidney cancer remains limited. The most common types of kidney cancer are renal cell carcinoma and renal pelvis carcinoma. It has been posited that these entities differ in their degree of radiogenicity. Recent analyses of cancer incidence and mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors have examined associations between ionizing radiation and renal cell carcinoma, but these analyses have not reported results for cancer of the renal pelvis and ureters. This paper reports the results of analyses of kidney cancer incidence during the period 19581998 among 105,427 atomic bomb survivors. Poisson regression methods were used to derive estimates of associations between radiation dose (in sievert, Sv) and cancer of the renal parenchyma (n 167), and cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter (n 80). Heterogeneity by cancer site was tested by joint modeling of cancer risks. Radiation dose was positively associated with cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter excess relative rate (ERR)/Sv 1.65; 90 confidence interval (CI): 0.37, 3.78. The magnitude of this association was larger than the estimated association between radiation dose and cancer of the renal parenchyma (ERR/Sv 0.27; 90 CI-0.19, 0.98). While the association between radiation and cancer of the renal parenchyma was of greater magnitude at ages <55 years (ERR/Sv 2.82; 90 CI 0.45, 8.89) than at older attained ages (ERR/Sv-0.11; 90 CI nd, 0.53), the association between radiation and cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter varied minimally across these categories of attained age. A test of heterogeneity of type-specific risks provides modest support for the conclusion that risks vary by kidney cancer site (LRT 2.34, 1 d.f., P 0.13). Since some studies of radiation-exposed populations examine these sites in aggregate, results were also derived for the combined category of cancer of the renal parenchyma, renal pelvis and ureters. Overall, there was a positive association between radiation and the combined category of cancer of the renal parenchyma, renal pelvis and ureters (ERR/Sv 0.60, 90 CI: 0.09, 1.30). Updated follow-up of the LSS cohort provides substantial additional information on the association between radiation and cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter, a site not examined in recent reports on analyses of these data. The results are suggestive of differences between the different regions of the kidney in sensitivity to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)837-842
Number of pages6
JournalRadiation Research
Volume173
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

fission weapons
Nuclear Weapons
Kidney Neoplasms
kidneys
Kidney Pelvis
Ionizing Radiation
ionizing radiation
Ureteral Neoplasms
Survivors
Pelvic Neoplasms
cancer
Radiation
pelvis
Confidence Intervals
radiation
Ureter
Renal Cell Carcinoma
confidence
intervals
Neoplasms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

Ionizing radiation and kidney cancer among Japanese atomic bomb survivors. / Richardson, David B.; Hamra, Ghassan.

In: Radiation Research, Vol. 173, No. 6, 01.06.2010, p. 837-842.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Understanding of the role of radiation as a cause of kidney cancer remains limited. The most common types of kidney cancer are renal cell carcinoma and renal pelvis carcinoma. It has been posited that these entities differ in their degree of radiogenicity. Recent analyses of cancer incidence and mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors have examined associations between ionizing radiation and renal cell carcinoma, but these analyses have not reported results for cancer of the renal pelvis and ureters. This paper reports the results of analyses of kidney cancer incidence during the period 19581998 among 105,427 atomic bomb survivors. Poisson regression methods were used to derive estimates of associations between radiation dose (in sievert, Sv) and cancer of the renal parenchyma (n 167), and cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter (n 80). Heterogeneity by cancer site was tested by joint modeling of cancer risks. Radiation dose was positively associated with cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter excess relative rate (ERR)/Sv 1.65; 90 confidence interval (CI): 0.37, 3.78. The magnitude of this association was larger than the estimated association between radiation dose and cancer of the renal parenchyma (ERR/Sv 0.27; 90 CI-0.19, 0.98). While the association between radiation and cancer of the renal parenchyma was of greater magnitude at ages <55 years (ERR/Sv 2.82; 90 CI 0.45, 8.89) than at older attained ages (ERR/Sv-0.11; 90 CI nd, 0.53), the association between radiation and cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter varied minimally across these categories of attained age. A test of heterogeneity of type-specific risks provides modest support for the conclusion that risks vary by kidney cancer site (LRT 2.34, 1 d.f., P 0.13). Since some studies of radiation-exposed populations examine these sites in aggregate, results were also derived for the combined category of cancer of the renal parenchyma, renal pelvis and ureters. Overall, there was a positive association between radiation and the combined category of cancer of the renal parenchyma, renal pelvis and ureters (ERR/Sv 0.60, 90 CI: 0.09, 1.30). Updated follow-up of the LSS cohort provides substantial additional information on the association between radiation and cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter, a site not examined in recent reports on analyses of these data. The results are suggestive of differences between the different regions of the kidney in sensitivity to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation.",
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