Involuntary tobacco smoke exposure and urinary levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the United States, 1999 to 2002

Plernpit Suwan-ampai, Ana Navas Acien, Paul Timothy Strickland, Jacqueline Agnew

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Evidence supports active smoking as a major source of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), compounds that are mutagenic and carcinogenic in humans. The influence of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke on PAH exposure levels among nonsmokers, however, is unknown. This study evaluated the association between both active and involuntary tobacco smoke and biomarkers of PAH exposure in the general U.S. population. A cross-sectional analysis of 5,060 participants ≥6 years of age was done using data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). PAH exposure was measured by urinary concentrations of 23 monohydroxylated metabolites of nine PAH compounds. Tobacco smoke exposure was defined as no exposure, involuntary exposure, and active exposure by combining serum cotinine levels, smoking status, and presence of household smokers. PAH metabolite levels ranged from 33.9 ng/L for 9-hydroxyphenanthrene to 2,465.4 ng/L for 2-hydroxynaphthalene. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, household income, and broiled/grilled food consumption, participants involuntarily and actively exposed to tobacco smoke had urinary metabolite concentrations that were increased by a factor of 1.1 to 1.4 and 1.5 to 6.9, respectively, compared with unexposed participants. Associations for involuntary smoking were stronger and statistically significant for 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 3-hydroxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene compared with other metabolites. Involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke was associated with elevated urinary concentrations of most PAH metabolites in a representative sample of the U.S. population. Policy and educational efforts must continue to minimize PAH exposure through active and involuntary tobacco smoke exposure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)884-893
Number of pages10
JournalCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention
Volume18
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2009

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Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Smoke
Tobacco
Smoking
Cotinine
Tobacco Smoke Pollution
Nutrition Surveys
Population
Cross-Sectional Studies
Biomarkers
Education
Food
Serum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Oncology

Cite this

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title = "Involuntary tobacco smoke exposure and urinary levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the United States, 1999 to 2002",
abstract = "Evidence supports active smoking as a major source of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), compounds that are mutagenic and carcinogenic in humans. The influence of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke on PAH exposure levels among nonsmokers, however, is unknown. This study evaluated the association between both active and involuntary tobacco smoke and biomarkers of PAH exposure in the general U.S. population. A cross-sectional analysis of 5,060 participants ≥6 years of age was done using data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). PAH exposure was measured by urinary concentrations of 23 monohydroxylated metabolites of nine PAH compounds. Tobacco smoke exposure was defined as no exposure, involuntary exposure, and active exposure by combining serum cotinine levels, smoking status, and presence of household smokers. PAH metabolite levels ranged from 33.9 ng/L for 9-hydroxyphenanthrene to 2,465.4 ng/L for 2-hydroxynaphthalene. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, household income, and broiled/grilled food consumption, participants involuntarily and actively exposed to tobacco smoke had urinary metabolite concentrations that were increased by a factor of 1.1 to 1.4 and 1.5 to 6.9, respectively, compared with unexposed participants. Associations for involuntary smoking were stronger and statistically significant for 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 3-hydroxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene compared with other metabolites. Involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke was associated with elevated urinary concentrations of most PAH metabolites in a representative sample of the U.S. population. Policy and educational efforts must continue to minimize PAH exposure through active and involuntary tobacco smoke exposure.",
author = "Plernpit Suwan-ampai and {Navas Acien}, Ana and Strickland, {Paul Timothy} and Jacqueline Agnew",
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AU - Suwan-ampai, Plernpit

AU - Navas Acien, Ana

AU - Strickland, Paul Timothy

AU - Agnew, Jacqueline

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N2 - Evidence supports active smoking as a major source of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), compounds that are mutagenic and carcinogenic in humans. The influence of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke on PAH exposure levels among nonsmokers, however, is unknown. This study evaluated the association between both active and involuntary tobacco smoke and biomarkers of PAH exposure in the general U.S. population. A cross-sectional analysis of 5,060 participants ≥6 years of age was done using data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). PAH exposure was measured by urinary concentrations of 23 monohydroxylated metabolites of nine PAH compounds. Tobacco smoke exposure was defined as no exposure, involuntary exposure, and active exposure by combining serum cotinine levels, smoking status, and presence of household smokers. PAH metabolite levels ranged from 33.9 ng/L for 9-hydroxyphenanthrene to 2,465.4 ng/L for 2-hydroxynaphthalene. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, household income, and broiled/grilled food consumption, participants involuntarily and actively exposed to tobacco smoke had urinary metabolite concentrations that were increased by a factor of 1.1 to 1.4 and 1.5 to 6.9, respectively, compared with unexposed participants. Associations for involuntary smoking were stronger and statistically significant for 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 3-hydroxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene compared with other metabolites. Involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke was associated with elevated urinary concentrations of most PAH metabolites in a representative sample of the U.S. population. Policy and educational efforts must continue to minimize PAH exposure through active and involuntary tobacco smoke exposure.

AB - Evidence supports active smoking as a major source of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), compounds that are mutagenic and carcinogenic in humans. The influence of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke on PAH exposure levels among nonsmokers, however, is unknown. This study evaluated the association between both active and involuntary tobacco smoke and biomarkers of PAH exposure in the general U.S. population. A cross-sectional analysis of 5,060 participants ≥6 years of age was done using data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). PAH exposure was measured by urinary concentrations of 23 monohydroxylated metabolites of nine PAH compounds. Tobacco smoke exposure was defined as no exposure, involuntary exposure, and active exposure by combining serum cotinine levels, smoking status, and presence of household smokers. PAH metabolite levels ranged from 33.9 ng/L for 9-hydroxyphenanthrene to 2,465.4 ng/L for 2-hydroxynaphthalene. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, household income, and broiled/grilled food consumption, participants involuntarily and actively exposed to tobacco smoke had urinary metabolite concentrations that were increased by a factor of 1.1 to 1.4 and 1.5 to 6.9, respectively, compared with unexposed participants. Associations for involuntary smoking were stronger and statistically significant for 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 3-hydroxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene compared with other metabolites. Involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke was associated with elevated urinary concentrations of most PAH metabolites in a representative sample of the U.S. population. Policy and educational efforts must continue to minimize PAH exposure through active and involuntary tobacco smoke exposure.

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