Investigation of an Outbreak of Variant Influenza A(H3N2) Virus Infection Associated with an Agricultural Fair - Ohio, August 2012

Adena Greenbaum, Celia Quinn, Jennifer Bailer, Su Su, Fiona Havers, Lizette O. Durand, Victoria Jiang, Shannon Page, Jeremy Budd, Michael Shaw, Matthew Biggerstaff, Sietske De Fijter, Kathleen Smith, Carrie Reed, Scott Epperson, Lynnette Brammer, Dave Feltz, Kevin Sohner, Jared Ford, Seema JainPaul Gargiullo, Edward Weiss, Pat Burg, Mary DiOrio, Brian Fowler, Lyn Finelli, Michael A. Jhung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background. In 2012, one third of cases in a multistate outbreak of variant influenza A(H3N2) virus ([H3N2]v) infection occurred in Ohio.We conducted an investigation of (H3N2)v cases associated with agricultural Fair A in Ohio. Methods. We surveyed Fair A swine exhibitors and their household members. Confirmed cases had influenza-like illness (ILI) and a positive laboratory test for (H3N2)v, and probable cases had ILI. We calculated attack rates. We determined risk factors for infection, using multivariable log-binomial regression. Results. We identified 20 confirmed and 94 probable cases associated with Fair A. Among 114 cases, themedian age was 10 years, therewere no hospitalizations or deaths, and 82% had swine exposure. In the exhibitor household cohort of 359 persons (83 households), we identified 6 confirmed cases (2%) and 40 probable cases (11%). An age of <10 years was a significant risk factor (P < .01) for illness. One instance of likely human-to-human transmission was identified. Conclusions. In this (H3N2)v outbreak, no evidence of sustained human-to-human (H3N2)v transmission was found. Our risk factor analysis contributed to the development of the recommendation that people at increased risk of influenza-associated complications, including children aged <5 years, avoid swine barns at fairs during the 2012 fair season.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1592-1599
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number10
StatePublished - Nov 15 2015


  • Influenza
  • Outbreak
  • Variant influenza virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases

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