There is a growing interest in the use of an intraventricular route for the delivery of therapeutic cells to the brain. This route is considered advantageous because of the central location of the lateral ventricles, the permeability of the ependyma, and the close proximity of the neurogenic zones. Multiple studies revealed successful incorporation of transplanted cells into the brain parenchyma of recipients. Growth and neurotrophic factors delivered to the cerebral ventricles, directly or secreted by transplanted cells, were able to induce endogenous neurogenesis. Both direct and indirect strategies have been shown to be therapeutically efficient in animal (rodent) models of all stroke-related diseases, such as hypoxic-ischemic neonatal injury, periventricular leukomalacia, ischemic stroke, and cerebral hemorrhage. Limited clinical experience has confirmed the preclinical data. However, there is a paucity of translational studies on large animals, which could contribute to the optimization of transplantation conditions and to a better understanding of the mechanisms that mediate cell-dependent effects.
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