Intraocular pressure and aqueous humor dynamics in patients with AIDS treated with intravitreal cidofovir (HPMPC) for cytomegalovirus retinitis

A. S. Banker, J. F. Arevalo, D. Munguia, F. M. Rahhal, B. Ishimoto, C. Berry, E. De Clercq, R. Ochabski, I. Taskintuna, W. R. Freeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


PURPOSE: To evaluate the decrease in intraocular pressure associated with cidofovir (1-[(S)-3hydroxy-2. (phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine dihydrate; HPMPC) intravitreal injections. METHODS: We followed up 97 eyes of 63 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who had cytomegalovirus retinitis and had been treated with up to nine 20-μg intravitreal cidofovir injections. Measurements were taken at baseline, between 2 and 3 weeks, and at 5 to 6 weeks after injections. Anterior chamber fluorophotometry was studied in seven eyes (four patients) before and after injections. Ciliary body anatomy was evaluated in two patients. RESULTS: After the first intravitreal injection, mean intraocular pressure was 2.2 mm Hg lower than that at baseline at 2 to 3 weeks (P < .001) and 1.3 mm Hg lower than at baseline at 5 to 6 weeks (P = .0025). After the second injection, mean pressure was 2.6 mm Hg lower at 2 to 3 weeks (P = .0013) and 1.5 mm Hg lower at 5 to 6 weeks (P = .043). After subsequent injections, however, the decrease was less than 1 mm Hg, suggesting that a plateau had been reached. Pressure in eyes with anterior uveitis after the first injection was lower than that in eyes without anterior uveitis (P < .0001). The mean rate of aqueous flow decreased from 2.8 to 1.9 μl per minute 2 to 4 weeks after injection (P < .015). Ultrasound biomicroscopy disclosed that severe hypotony after cidofovir injections is associated with ciliary body atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: Intraocular pressure decreases after the initial 20-μg cidofovir intravitreal injection. However, eyes stabilize (pressure plateaus) after three injections. Effects on the ciliary body are the main cause of the decrease after cidofovir injections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)168-180
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican journal of ophthalmology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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