Intraindividual variability in neurocognitive performance: No influence due to HIV status or self-reported effort

for the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study–Neuropsychology Working Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are estimated to affect approximately 50% of infected individuals at any one time. Dispersion, a type of intraindividual variability in neurocognitive test performance, has been identified as a potential behavioral marker of HAND; however, the specificity of dispersion to HAND and how it is influenced by participant effort when taking neurocognitive tests remain unclear. Method: Data were analyzed from 996 (474 HIV–, 522 HIV+) men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Dispersion was calculated based on the standard deviation of an individual’s test scores within a single assessment. Effort was determined using the Visual Analogue Effort Scale. Predictors of dispersion were determined using stepwise linear regression. Dispersion was compared between the HIV serostatus groups using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), considering demographic and psychosocial variables that differed between the groups. Results: Contrary to our hypothesis, dispersion was not influenced by effort. Instead, poorer neurocognitive ability and race were the sole predictors of dispersion. Dispersion did not differ between the serostatus groups. Conclusions: Our results indicate that dispersion is a valid indicator of neurocognitive dysfunction that is not due to suboptimal effort; however, it is not specific to HIV and is therefore of limited utility as a behavioral marker of HIV-related neurocognitive impairment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

HIV
Aptitude
Visual Analog Scale
Linear Models
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Cohort Studies
Demography
Neurocognitive Disorders

Keywords

  • Dispersion
  • HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
  • neuroHIV
  • suboptimal effort
  • visual analogue scale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Intraindividual variability in neurocognitive performance : No influence due to HIV status or self-reported effort. / for the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study–Neuropsychology Working Group.

In: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{bb97dc0d37f44cca88094e4d1293beb4,
title = "Intraindividual variability in neurocognitive performance: No influence due to HIV status or self-reported effort",
abstract = "Introduction: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are estimated to affect approximately 50{\%} of infected individuals at any one time. Dispersion, a type of intraindividual variability in neurocognitive test performance, has been identified as a potential behavioral marker of HAND; however, the specificity of dispersion to HAND and how it is influenced by participant effort when taking neurocognitive tests remain unclear. Method: Data were analyzed from 996 (474 HIV–, 522 HIV+) men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Dispersion was calculated based on the standard deviation of an individual’s test scores within a single assessment. Effort was determined using the Visual Analogue Effort Scale. Predictors of dispersion were determined using stepwise linear regression. Dispersion was compared between the HIV serostatus groups using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), considering demographic and psychosocial variables that differed between the groups. Results: Contrary to our hypothesis, dispersion was not influenced by effort. Instead, poorer neurocognitive ability and race were the sole predictors of dispersion. Dispersion did not differ between the serostatus groups. Conclusions: Our results indicate that dispersion is a valid indicator of neurocognitive dysfunction that is not due to suboptimal effort; however, it is not specific to HIV and is therefore of limited utility as a behavioral marker of HIV-related neurocognitive impairment.",
keywords = "Dispersion, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, neuroHIV, suboptimal effort, visual analogue scale",
author = "{for the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study–Neuropsychology Working Group} and Levine, {Andrew J.} and Eileen Martin and Cynthia Munro and Ned Sacktor and Steve Horvath and Becker, {James T.}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1080/13803395.2018.1508554",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology",
issn = "1380-3395",
publisher = "Psychology Press Ltd",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Intraindividual variability in neurocognitive performance

T2 - No influence due to HIV status or self-reported effort

AU - for the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study–Neuropsychology Working Group

AU - Levine, Andrew J.

AU - Martin, Eileen

AU - Munro, Cynthia

AU - Sacktor, Ned

AU - Horvath, Steve

AU - Becker, James T.

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Introduction: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are estimated to affect approximately 50% of infected individuals at any one time. Dispersion, a type of intraindividual variability in neurocognitive test performance, has been identified as a potential behavioral marker of HAND; however, the specificity of dispersion to HAND and how it is influenced by participant effort when taking neurocognitive tests remain unclear. Method: Data were analyzed from 996 (474 HIV–, 522 HIV+) men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Dispersion was calculated based on the standard deviation of an individual’s test scores within a single assessment. Effort was determined using the Visual Analogue Effort Scale. Predictors of dispersion were determined using stepwise linear regression. Dispersion was compared between the HIV serostatus groups using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), considering demographic and psychosocial variables that differed between the groups. Results: Contrary to our hypothesis, dispersion was not influenced by effort. Instead, poorer neurocognitive ability and race were the sole predictors of dispersion. Dispersion did not differ between the serostatus groups. Conclusions: Our results indicate that dispersion is a valid indicator of neurocognitive dysfunction that is not due to suboptimal effort; however, it is not specific to HIV and is therefore of limited utility as a behavioral marker of HIV-related neurocognitive impairment.

AB - Introduction: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are estimated to affect approximately 50% of infected individuals at any one time. Dispersion, a type of intraindividual variability in neurocognitive test performance, has been identified as a potential behavioral marker of HAND; however, the specificity of dispersion to HAND and how it is influenced by participant effort when taking neurocognitive tests remain unclear. Method: Data were analyzed from 996 (474 HIV–, 522 HIV+) men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Dispersion was calculated based on the standard deviation of an individual’s test scores within a single assessment. Effort was determined using the Visual Analogue Effort Scale. Predictors of dispersion were determined using stepwise linear regression. Dispersion was compared between the HIV serostatus groups using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), considering demographic and psychosocial variables that differed between the groups. Results: Contrary to our hypothesis, dispersion was not influenced by effort. Instead, poorer neurocognitive ability and race were the sole predictors of dispersion. Dispersion did not differ between the serostatus groups. Conclusions: Our results indicate that dispersion is a valid indicator of neurocognitive dysfunction that is not due to suboptimal effort; however, it is not specific to HIV and is therefore of limited utility as a behavioral marker of HIV-related neurocognitive impairment.

KW - Dispersion

KW - HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

KW - neuroHIV

KW - suboptimal effort

KW - visual analogue scale

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85052095308&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85052095308&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/13803395.2018.1508554

DO - 10.1080/13803395.2018.1508554

M3 - Article

C2 - 30124355

AN - SCOPUS:85052095308

JO - Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology

JF - Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology

SN - 1380-3395

ER -