Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is the second most common primary liver tumor with increasing incidence worldwide. The outcome of patients with iCCA is dismal owing to tumor's aggressiveness, late diagnosis and lack of effective treatment options. Detection of the tumor at early stages may make surgical resection, as only potential curative treatment, more feasible. Unfortunately, despite recent developments in imaging modalities and laboratory tests, the diagnosis of iCCA remains challenging and patients often present in advanced stages when surgery cannot be offered. Moreover, accurate assessment of disease burden is critical to optimize management strategy, including the use of adjuvant therapies and clinical trials. Identifying iCCA specific diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers has been a focus of interest among many investigators with a progressive increase in data on iCCA related to advances in “omics” technologies. We herein summarize iCCA biomarkers and define the molecular mechanisms underlying iCCA carcinogenesis, as well as highlight potential diagnostic and prognostic application of molecular biomarkers.
- Biliary tract cancer
- Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma
- Molecular pathogenesis
ASJC Scopus subject areas