Intraglandular injection of botulinum toxin a reduces tear production in rabbits

Anna M. Demetriades, Ilya M. Leyngold, Sam D'Anna, Allen Eghrari, Dave G. Emmert, Michael Grant, Shannath L Merbs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

PURPOSE:: To develop an animal model and investigate the dose-dependent effect of an intraglandular injection of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) on tear production. METHODS:: In a volume of 0.1-ml, 0.625-, 1.25-, or 2.5-U BTX-A was injected transconjunctivally in the superolateral lobe of the lacrimal gland of adult New Zealand white female rabbits. In the contralateral lacrimal gland, 0.1 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride was injected. Prior to injection and at 1-week postinjection, photographs were taken to evaluate pre- and postoperative eyelid position. Fluorescein and Rose Bengal stain were used to evaluate the corneal surface, and Schirmer test was used to assess tear production. RESULTS:: Glands injected with the intermediate (1.25 U) and the highest (2.5 U) doses of BTX-A displayed a statistically significant decrease in tear production (p = 0.002 and 0.007, respectively) compared with the contralateral saline-injected glands at 1 week. No corneal pathologic factors from excessive dryness were observed following the injection. While postinjection ptosis was observed (p = 0.025), no difference was seen between BTX-A and saline-injected eyes. CONCLUSIONS:: In rabbits, intraglandular injection of BTX-A resulted in decreased tear production at 1 week. No additional reduction in tear production was seen with a BTX-A dose greater than 1.25 U, suggesting glandular receptor saturation at this dose. Despite suppression of tear production, no corneal pathologic factors were observed. Further studies are needed to refine this animal model with the ultimate goal of determining optimum delivery route and concentration to reduction in tear production while minimizing side effects in patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)21-24
Number of pages4
JournalOphthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Volume29
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2013

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Botulinum Toxins
Type A Botulinum Toxins
Tears
Rabbits
Injections
Lacrimal Apparatus
Animal Models
Rose Bengal
Eyelids
Fluorescein
Sodium Chloride
Coloring Agents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Surgery

Cite this

Intraglandular injection of botulinum toxin a reduces tear production in rabbits. / Demetriades, Anna M.; Leyngold, Ilya M.; D'Anna, Sam; Eghrari, Allen; Emmert, Dave G.; Grant, Michael; Merbs, Shannath L.

In: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vol. 29, No. 1, 01.2013, p. 21-24.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "PURPOSE:: To develop an animal model and investigate the dose-dependent effect of an intraglandular injection of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) on tear production. METHODS:: In a volume of 0.1-ml, 0.625-, 1.25-, or 2.5-U BTX-A was injected transconjunctivally in the superolateral lobe of the lacrimal gland of adult New Zealand white female rabbits. In the contralateral lacrimal gland, 0.1 ml of 0.9{\%} sodium chloride was injected. Prior to injection and at 1-week postinjection, photographs were taken to evaluate pre- and postoperative eyelid position. Fluorescein and Rose Bengal stain were used to evaluate the corneal surface, and Schirmer test was used to assess tear production. RESULTS:: Glands injected with the intermediate (1.25 U) and the highest (2.5 U) doses of BTX-A displayed a statistically significant decrease in tear production (p = 0.002 and 0.007, respectively) compared with the contralateral saline-injected glands at 1 week. No corneal pathologic factors from excessive dryness were observed following the injection. While postinjection ptosis was observed (p = 0.025), no difference was seen between BTX-A and saline-injected eyes. CONCLUSIONS:: In rabbits, intraglandular injection of BTX-A resulted in decreased tear production at 1 week. No additional reduction in tear production was seen with a BTX-A dose greater than 1.25 U, suggesting glandular receptor saturation at this dose. Despite suppression of tear production, no corneal pathologic factors were observed. Further studies are needed to refine this animal model with the ultimate goal of determining optimum delivery route and concentration to reduction in tear production while minimizing side effects in patients.",
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AB - PURPOSE:: To develop an animal model and investigate the dose-dependent effect of an intraglandular injection of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) on tear production. METHODS:: In a volume of 0.1-ml, 0.625-, 1.25-, or 2.5-U BTX-A was injected transconjunctivally in the superolateral lobe of the lacrimal gland of adult New Zealand white female rabbits. In the contralateral lacrimal gland, 0.1 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride was injected. Prior to injection and at 1-week postinjection, photographs were taken to evaluate pre- and postoperative eyelid position. Fluorescein and Rose Bengal stain were used to evaluate the corneal surface, and Schirmer test was used to assess tear production. RESULTS:: Glands injected with the intermediate (1.25 U) and the highest (2.5 U) doses of BTX-A displayed a statistically significant decrease in tear production (p = 0.002 and 0.007, respectively) compared with the contralateral saline-injected glands at 1 week. No corneal pathologic factors from excessive dryness were observed following the injection. While postinjection ptosis was observed (p = 0.025), no difference was seen between BTX-A and saline-injected eyes. CONCLUSIONS:: In rabbits, intraglandular injection of BTX-A resulted in decreased tear production at 1 week. No additional reduction in tear production was seen with a BTX-A dose greater than 1.25 U, suggesting glandular receptor saturation at this dose. Despite suppression of tear production, no corneal pathologic factors were observed. Further studies are needed to refine this animal model with the ultimate goal of determining optimum delivery route and concentration to reduction in tear production while minimizing side effects in patients.

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