Intra-arterial therapies for liver cancer: assessing tumor response

Yasmin W. Stroehl, Brian S. Letzen, Johanna M.M. van Breugel, Jean Francois Geschwind, Julius Chapiro

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Introduction: Intra-arterial therapies (IATs) play an integral role in the management of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The ability to accurately assess tumor response to intra-arterial therapies is crucial for clinical management. Several one- and two-dimensional manual imaging-based response assessment techniques, based both on tumor size or enhancement, have shown to be highly subjective and merely surrogate for the actual tumor as a whole. Areas covered: Given the currently existing literature, we will discuss all available tumor assessment techniques and criteria for liver cancer with a strong emphasis on 3D quantitative imaging biomarkers of tumor response in this review. Expert commentary: The growing role of information technology in medicine has brought about the advent of software-assisted, segmentation-based assessment techniques that address the outstanding issues of a subjective reader and provide for more accurate assessment techniques for the locally treated lesions. Three-dimensional quantitative tumor assessment techniques are superior to one- and two-dimensional measurements. This allows for treatment alterations and more precise targeting, potentially resulting in improved patient outcome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)119-127
Number of pages9
JournalExpert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • 3D
  • ADC
  • intraarterial therapy
  • liver cancer
  • qEASL
  • tumor response
  • tumor staging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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