Background Inflammation is a key component of both acute kidney injury (AKI) and response to cardiopulmonary bypass. Because AKI poses risks to children after cardiac surgery, we investigated the value of inflammatory biomarkers interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) for predicting AKI and other complications. Methods We enrolled 412 children between the ages of 1 month and 18 years undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery. We collected blood both preoperatively and postoperatively (within 6 hours post-surgery) and measured plasma IL-8 and TNFα. Results IL-8 and TNFα did not predict AKI in children <2 years, but were strongly associated with AKI in children ≥2 years. There were significant associations between biomarker levels and age (<2 or ≥2 years). In children ≥2 years, patients in the highest tertile of preoperative IL-8 and postoperative TNFα had 4.9-fold (95% CI: 1.8-13.2) and 3.3-fold (95% CI: 1.2-9.0) higher odds of AKI compared with those in the lowest tertile. Children <2 years with higher biomarker levels also had higher odds of AKI, but the difference was not significant. We also found that postoperative TNFα levels were significantly higher in patients with longer hospital stays, and that both postoperative IL-8 and TNFα levels were significantly higher in patients with longer ventilation lengths. There was no evidence that biomarker levels mediated the association between AKI and length of ventilation; they appear to be independent predictors. Conclusions Preoperative IL-8 and postoperative TNFα are significantly associated with higher odds of AKI and greater lengths of hospital stays and ventilator use in children 2 years and older.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine