Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer have been associated with multiple adverse outcomes in HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals, but their association with neuropsychiatric outcomes, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) and depression, headaches, and peripheral neuropathy have not been investigated. Three hundred ninety-nine HIV+ antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve adults in Rakai, Uganda, were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study and completed a neurological evaluation, neurocognitive assessment, and venous blood draw. Half of the participants had advanced immunosuppression (CD4 count < 200 cells/μL), and half had moderate immunosuppression (CD4 count 350–500 cells/μL). All-cause mortality was determined by verbal autopsy within 2 years. HAND was determined using Frascati criteria, and depression was defined by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Neuropathy was defined as the presence of > 1 neuropathy symptom and > 1 neuropathy sign. Headaches were identified by self-report. Serum D-dimer levels were determined using ELISA and IL-6 levels using singleplex assays. Participants were 53% male, mean age 35 + 8 years, and mean education 5 + 3 years. Participants with advanced immunosuppression had significantly higher levels of IL-6 (p < 0.001) and a trend toward higher D-dimer levels (p = 0.06). IL-6 was higher among participants with HAND (p = 0.01), with depression (p = 0.03) and among those who died within 2 years (p = 0.001) but not those with neuropathy or headaches. D-dimer did not vary significantly by any outcome. Systemic inflammation as measured by serum IL-6 is associated with an increased risk of advanced immunosuppression, all-cause mortality, HAND, and depression but not neuropathy or headaches among ART-naïve HIV+ adults in rural Uganda.
- All-cause mortality
- HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience