Future long-duration space exploration and colonization missions will present unique challenges to crew behavioral health and performance. Specifically, factors such as autonomous operations, heavy workload, and circadian disruptions may interact to affect performance, behavior, and biopsychosocial function. Here, we briefly summarize the results of experiments from our laboratory-based research program on the effects of bounded autonomy and conclude with new data exploring the interactive effects of scheduled vs. autonomous crew management and circadian phase under extended 12-hr "missions" conducted during the day (0900-2100 hr) or night (2100-0900 hr) in well-trained 3-pcrson crews engaged in an interdependent computer-based planetary surface exploration task. Crew task performance significantly increased, subjective and linguistic indicators of psychosocial adaptation were enhanced, and group-level behavioral unfairness was significantly attenuated under autonomous mission management regardless of circadian phase and significant subjective fatigue. Physiological stress reactivity was significantly reduced under autonomous management, but only during day missions. Overall, the results consistently support the potential benefits of autonomous mission management on crew performance, psychosocial adaptation, cooperative propensity, and biobehavioral functioning.