Interactions of the major metabolite of the cancer chemopreventive drug oltipraz with cytochrome c: A novel pathway for cancer chemoprevention

Murugesan Velayutham, Rajendra B. Muthukumaran, Joe Z. Sostaric, John McCraken, James C. Fishbein, Jay L. Zweier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The major metabolite of the cancer chemopreventive agent oltipraz, a pyrrolopyrazine thione (PPD), has been shown to be a phase 2 enzyme inducer, an activity thought to be key to the cancer chemopreventive action of the parent compound. In cells, mitochondria are the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytochrome c (cyt c) is known to participate in mitochondrial electron transport and confer antioxidant and peroxidase activities. To understand possible mechanisms by which PPD acts as a phase 2 enzyme inducer, a study of its interaction with cyt c was undertaken. UV-visible spectroscopic results demonstrate that PPD is capable of reducing oxidized cyt c. The reduced cyt c is stable for a long period of time in the absence of an oxidizing agent. In the presence of ferricyanide, the reduced cyt c is rapidly oxidized back to its oxidized form. Further, UV-visible spectroscopic studies show that during the reduction process the coordination environment and redox state of iron in cyt c are changed. Low-temperature EPR studies show that during the reduction process, the heme iron changes from a low-spin state of s = 1/2 to a low-spin state of s = 0. Room-temperature EPR studies demonstrate that PPD inhibits the peroxidase activity of cyt c. EPR spin trapping experiments using DMPO show that PPD inhibits the superoxide radical scavenging activity of oxidized cyt c. From these results, we propose that PPD interacts with cyt c, binding to and then reducing the heme, and this may enhance ROS levels in mitochondria. This in turn could contribute to the mechanism by which the parent compound, oltipraz, might trigger the cancer chemopreventive increase in transcription of phase 2 enzymes. The modifications of cyt c function by the oltipraz metabolite may have implications for the regulation of apoptotic cell death.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1076-1085
Number of pages10
JournalFree Radical Biology and Medicine
Volume43
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2007
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cancer
  • Chemoprevention
  • Cytochrome c
  • Dithiolethiones
  • DTMO
  • EPR
  • Free radical
  • Metabolite
  • Oltipraz
  • Phase 2 enzymes
  • PPD
  • Reactive oxygen species

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Toxicology
  • Clinical Biochemistry

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