Interactions of diarrhea, pneumonia, and malnutrition in childhood: Recent evidence from developing countries

Elizabeth P. Schlaudecker, Mark C. Steinhoff, Sean R. Moore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose of Review: This review highlights recent progress toward understanding complex interactions between diarrhea, pneumonia, and undernutrition among children in low-income and middle-income countries. Recent Findings: New studies parallel earlier reports that diarrhea and pneumonia impair children's growth and that underlying malnutrition is a major risk factor for these conditions. Episodes of diarrhea may predispose to pneumonia in undernourished children. Additional studies support breastfeeding and micronutrient supplementation for the prevention and control of diarrhea and pneumonia. Malnutrition may partially account for the reduced efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccines in low-income countries. Immunization of pregnant women against influenza also appears to reduce intrauterine growth retardation. Immunization of infants against Streptococcus pneumoniae may improve their growth. New genetic studies indicate that polymorphisms in apolipoprotein E or the leptin receptor modulate children's risk for diarrhea and Entamoeba histolytica infection, respectively, thereby linking two genes important for lipid metabolism to enteric infections. Summary: Significant advances have been made in understanding the vicious cycle of malnutrition, diarrhea, and pneumonia in developing countries. Future challenges will be to translate this progress into effective and widely accessible public health measures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)496-502
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Volume24
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Malnutrition
Developing Countries
Diarrhea
Pneumonia
Immunization
Rotavirus Vaccines
Leptin Receptors
Entamoeba histolytica
Fetal Growth Retardation
Micronutrients
Apolipoproteins E
Growth
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Infection
Breast Feeding
Lipid Metabolism
Human Influenza
Pregnant Women
Public Health
Genes

Keywords

  • diarrhea
  • malnutrition
  • pneumonia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Interactions of diarrhea, pneumonia, and malnutrition in childhood : Recent evidence from developing countries. / Schlaudecker, Elizabeth P.; Steinhoff, Mark C.; Moore, Sean R.

In: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, Vol. 24, No. 5, 10.2011, p. 496-502.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Schlaudecker, Elizabeth P. ; Steinhoff, Mark C. ; Moore, Sean R. / Interactions of diarrhea, pneumonia, and malnutrition in childhood : Recent evidence from developing countries. In: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 2011 ; Vol. 24, No. 5. pp. 496-502.
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