Interaction of threat and verbal working memory in adolescents

Nilam Patel, Katherine Vytal, Nevia Pavletic, Catherine Stoodley, Daniel S. Pine, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Threat induces a state of sustained anxiety that can disrupt cognitive processing, and, reciprocally, cognitive processing can modulate an anxiety response to threat. These effects depend on the level of cognitive engagement, which itself varies as a function of task difficulty. In adults, we recently showed that induced anxiety impaired working memory accuracy at low and medium but not high load. Conversely, increasing the task load reduced the physiological correlates of anxiety (anxiety-potentiated startle). The present work examines such threat-cognition interactions as a function of age. We expected threat to more strongly impact working memory in younger individuals by virtue of putatively restricted cognitive resources and weaker emotion regulation. This was tested by examining the influence of age on the interaction of anxiety and working memory in 25 adolescents (10 to 17 years) and 25 adults (22 to 46 years). Working memory load was manipulated using a verbal n-back task. Anxiety was induced using the threat of an aversive loud scream and measured via eyeblink startle. Findings revealed that, in both age groups, accuracy was lower during threat than safe conditions at low and medium but not high load, and reaction times were faster during threat than safe conditions at high load but did not differ at other loads. Additionally, anxiety-potentiated startle was greater during low and medium than high load. Thus, the interactions of anxiety with working memory appear similar in adolescents and adults. Whether these similarities reflect common neural mechanisms would need to be assessed using functional neuroimaging.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)518-526
Number of pages9
JournalPSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY
Volume53
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016

Keywords

  • Adolescence
  • Anxiety
  • Cognitive load
  • Threat
  • Working memory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Neurology
  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Biological Psychiatry

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Interaction of threat and verbal working memory in adolescents'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Patel, N., Vytal, K., Pavletic, N., Stoodley, C., Pine, D. S., Grillon, C., & Ernst, M. (2016). Interaction of threat and verbal working memory in adolescents. PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, 53(4), 518-526. https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12582