Background Labor force participation among women in Egypt remains low. Due to low fertility and increases in life expectancy, in the future women in Egypt may spend more time co-residing with aging in-laws. Past literature has suggested that in some settings co-residence allows women to enter the labor force, as mothers-in-law help care for their grandchildren, or inhibits labor force participation, when mothers-in-law reinforce traditional values or require care. There is little research on co-residence and labor supply or leisure time in Egypt, especially accounting for mother-in-law disability status. Objective This paper examines the role of intergenerational co-residence in women's work, work time, and leisure time using data on time allocation in Egypt. Methods Data were collected from 548 women with a living mother-in-law: 291 co-residing their mother-in-law and 257 not. Survey data included work status, a 24-hour time diary, and a health assessment of the mother-in-law. Multivariate regression models predicted work, work time, and leisure time use using standard models. Results Co-residing with a disabled mother-in-law was associated with decreased odds of women working and fewer minutes spent working a day. Leisure time was not associated with the co-residence and disability status of a mother-in-law. Factors relatedto couples' relationships and the woman's views on gender norms were also associated with women working. Conclusions Co-residence appears to be associated with women's work, depending on the disability status of the co-residing mother-in-law. If increased life expectancy is associated with more time spent in a disabled state for mothers-in-law, this could put downward pressure on women's work in this setting.
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