Integrating nine prescription opioid analgesics and/or four signal detection systems to summarize statewide prescription drug abuse in the United States in 2007

Michael Schneider, J. Elise Bailey, Theodore J. Cicero, Richard C. Dart, James A. Inciardi, Mark Parrino, Alvaro Munoz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: Integrate statewide rankings of abuse across different drugs and/or signal detection systems to summarize prescription drug abuse in each state in 2007. Methods: Four signal detection systems (Opioid Treatment Programs, Key Informants, Drug Diversion, and Poison Centers) that covered heterogeneous populations collected data on the abuse of nine opioids: hydrocodone, immediate-release oxycodone, tramadol, extended-release [ER] oxycodone, fentanyl, morphine, methadone, hydromorphone, and buprenorphine). We introduce here linearized maps which integrate nine drugs within each system; four systems for each drug; or all drugs and systems. Results: When rankings were integrated across drugs, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Maine, West Virginia, and Michigan were in the highest tertile of abuse in three systems. When rankings were integrated across signal detection systems, there was a geographic clustering of states with the highest rates for ER oxycodone (in Tennessee, Mississippi, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, and in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, and Vermont) and methadone (Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Maine, Vermont, Connecticut, and New Jersey). When rankings were integrated across both drugs and signal detection systems, states with 3-digit ZIP codes below 269 (i.e., from Massachusetts toWest Virginia): Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, Vermont,Washington DC, Virginia, andWest Virginia were in the highest tertile and only Delaware was in the lowest tertile. Conclusions: We have presented methods to integrate data on prescription opioid abuse collected by signal detection systems covering different populations. Linearized maps are effective graphical summaries that depict differences in the level of prescription opioid abuse at the state level.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)778-790
Number of pages13
JournalPharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Volume18
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009

Fingerprint

Prescription Drug Misuse
Opioid Analgesics
Prescriptions
Oxycodone
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Methadone
Hydrocodone
Hydromorphone
Mississippi
Tramadol
Buprenorphine
Poisons
Fentanyl
Morphine
Population
Cluster Analysis

Keywords

  • Abuse
  • Maps
  • Non-parametric methods
  • Prescription opioid analgesics
  • Signal detection systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Epidemiology

Cite this

Integrating nine prescription opioid analgesics and/or four signal detection systems to summarize statewide prescription drug abuse in the United States in 2007. / Schneider, Michael; Bailey, J. Elise; Cicero, Theodore J.; Dart, Richard C.; Inciardi, James A.; Parrino, Mark; Munoz, Alvaro.

In: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, Vol. 18, No. 9, 2009, p. 778-790.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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