Integrating Frailty and Cognitive Phenotypes: Why, How, Now What?

Qian Li Xue, Brian Buta, Lina Ma, Meiling Ge, Michelle Carlson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Purpose of Review: This review elucidates the concept of frailty in relationship to reserve and resilience, the relationships and shared pathophysiology between physical frailty and cognitive impairment, the theoretical underpinnings of three integrated phenotypes of physical and cognitive impairments, and the potential of incorporating biomarkers into phenotype refinement and validation. Recent Findings: The fact that frailty and cognitive impairment are associated and often coexist in older adults has led to the popular view of expanding the definition of frailty to include cognitive impairment. However, there is great variability in approaches to and assumptions regarding the integrated phenotypes of physical frailty and cognitive impairment. Summary: The development of integrated frailty and cognitive phenotypes should explicate the types of frailty and cognitive impairment they intend to capture and prioritize the incorporation of biological theories that help determine shared and distinct pathways in the progression to physical and cognitive impairments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)97-106
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent Geriatrics Reports
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2019


  • Aging phenotypes
  • Cognitive Frailty
  • Geriatric syndrome
  • Reserve
  • Resilience
  • Stressors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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