Background - New ablation strategies for atrial fibrillation or nonidiopathic ventricular tachycardia are increasingly based on anatomic consideration and require the placement of ablation lesions at the correct anatomic locations. This study sought to evaluate the accuracy of the first clinically available image integration system for catheter ablation on 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images in real time. Methods and Results - After midline sternotomy, 2.3-mm CT fiducial markers were attached to the epicardial surface of each cardiac chamber in 9 mongrel dogs. Detailed 3D cardiac anatomy was reconstructed from contrast-enhanced, high-resolution CT images and registered to the electroanatomic maps of each cardiac chamber. To assess accuracy, targeted ablations were performed at each of the fiducial markers guided only by the reconstructed 3D images. At autopsy, the position error was 1.9±0.9 mm for the right atrium, 2.7±1.2 mm for the right ventricle, 1.8±1.0 mm for the left atrium, and 2.3±1.1 mm for the left ventricle. To evaluate the system's guidance of more complex clinical ablation strategies, ablations of the cavotricuspid isthmus (n=4), fossa ovalis (n=4), and pulmonary veins (n=6) were performed, which resulted in position errors of 1.8± 1.5, 2.2±1.3, and 2.1±1.2 mm, respectively. Retrospective analysis revealed that a combination of landmark registration and the target chamber surface registration resulted in <3 mm accuracy in all 4 cardiac chambers. Conclusions - Image integration with high-resolution 3D CT allows accurate placement of anatomically guided ablation lesions and can facilitate complex ablation strategies. This may provide significant advantages for anatomically based procedures such as ablation of atrial fibrillation and nonidiopathic ventricular tachycardia.
- Catheter ablation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)