Intakes of energy and macronutrients and the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia

Sadao Suzuki, Elizabeth A. Platz, Ichiro Kawachi, Walter C. Willett, Edward Giovannucci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease of older men. Although the etiology remains unclear, nutritional factors may have an effect on the disease. Objective: Because the literature on the relations between macronutrient intakes and BPH risk is limited, we examined these relations among men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Design: We followed men aged 40-75 y from baseline in 1986 to 1994. Total BPH cases (n = 3523) comprised men who reported BPH surgery (n = 1589) or who did not undergo surgery but scored 15-35 points on the lower urinary tract symptom questionnaire of the American Urological Association (n = 1934); noncases were men who scored ≤7 points (n = 24388). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated by using multivariate logistic regression. Results: The ORs rose with increasing total energy intake in a comparison of the highest and lowest quintiles for total BPH (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.45) and symptoms of BPH (1.43; 1.23, 1.66). Energy-adjusted total protein intake was positively associated with total BPH (1.18; 1.05, 1.33) and BPH surgery (1.26; 1.06, 1.49). Energy-adjusted total fat intake was not associated with risk of total BPH, but intakes of eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and arachidonic acids were associated with a moderate increase in risk of total BPH. Conclusions: We observed modest direct associations between BPH and intakes of total energy, protein, and specific long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Because eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and arachidonic acids are highly unsaturated fatty acids, our findings support a possible role of oxidative stress in the etiology of BPH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)689-697
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2002


  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • Calories
  • Cohort study
  • Energy
  • Health Professionals Follow-up Study
  • Macronutrients
  • Men
  • Polyunsaturated fat
  • Protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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