Injuries in female collegiate swimmers due to swimming and cross training

Edward G McFarland, Mike Wasik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: To identify and compare the nature and frequency of training and cross-training injuries incurred by members of a women's collegiate swim team. Design: A longitudinal survey of training-room and medical records for 7 years, classifying injuries by diagnosis and time lost from participation. Setting: Division I women's collegiate swimming program, United States. Participants: All swimmers in a Division I women's collegiate swimming program over 7 years, for a total of 68 swimmers. Assessment of Risk Factors: Not applicable. Intervention: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: 'Injury' was defined as any contact with a trainer or physician that resulted in evaluation or treatment. Each injury was categorized with respect to (a) activity during which injury was incurred; (b) diagnosis, including body part injured; (c) time lost from participation in practice or competition; and (d) severity, i.e., minor (≤ 7 days), moderate (7-21 days), and major (> 21 days). An 'Exposure' was defined as participation in one practice session or competition. Main Results: The overall injury rate per 1,000 exposures per athlete was 2.12; 44% of injuries were due to swimming, 44% to cross training, and 11% to activities unrelated to athletics. Cross-training injuries occurred primarily in the lower extremities, while swimming injuries occurred more commonly in the upper extremities. The ratio of upper to lower extremity injuries due to swimming was 3:1, whereas the ratio for cross training was 1:4. Conclusions: Injuries to swimmers occur at a lower rate per exposure than to other collegiate athletic populations. Swimming injuries occurred primarily in the upper extremities, especially the shoulder. Lower extremity injuries occurred primarily due to cross training. We conclude that swimming is relatively safe compared to other collegiate sports, but special care should be used in designing injury-avoiding cross-training programs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)178-182
Number of pages5
JournalClinical Journal of Sport Medicine
Volume6
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1996

Fingerprint

Wounds and Injuries
Sports
Lower Extremity
Upper Extremity
Human Body
Athletes
Medical Records
Longitudinal Studies
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Physicians
Education
Population

Keywords

  • Cross training
  • Injuries
  • Swimmers
  • Women collegiate athletes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

Injuries in female collegiate swimmers due to swimming and cross training. / McFarland, Edward G; Wasik, Mike.

In: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1996, p. 178-182.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{f73771fd6c794bd78b96b6f7bfc5eafa,
title = "Injuries in female collegiate swimmers due to swimming and cross training",
abstract = "Objective: To identify and compare the nature and frequency of training and cross-training injuries incurred by members of a women's collegiate swim team. Design: A longitudinal survey of training-room and medical records for 7 years, classifying injuries by diagnosis and time lost from participation. Setting: Division I women's collegiate swimming program, United States. Participants: All swimmers in a Division I women's collegiate swimming program over 7 years, for a total of 68 swimmers. Assessment of Risk Factors: Not applicable. Intervention: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: 'Injury' was defined as any contact with a trainer or physician that resulted in evaluation or treatment. Each injury was categorized with respect to (a) activity during which injury was incurred; (b) diagnosis, including body part injured; (c) time lost from participation in practice or competition; and (d) severity, i.e., minor (≤ 7 days), moderate (7-21 days), and major (> 21 days). An 'Exposure' was defined as participation in one practice session or competition. Main Results: The overall injury rate per 1,000 exposures per athlete was 2.12; 44{\%} of injuries were due to swimming, 44{\%} to cross training, and 11{\%} to activities unrelated to athletics. Cross-training injuries occurred primarily in the lower extremities, while swimming injuries occurred more commonly in the upper extremities. The ratio of upper to lower extremity injuries due to swimming was 3:1, whereas the ratio for cross training was 1:4. Conclusions: Injuries to swimmers occur at a lower rate per exposure than to other collegiate athletic populations. Swimming injuries occurred primarily in the upper extremities, especially the shoulder. Lower extremity injuries occurred primarily due to cross training. We conclude that swimming is relatively safe compared to other collegiate sports, but special care should be used in designing injury-avoiding cross-training programs.",
keywords = "Cross training, Injuries, Swimmers, Women collegiate athletes",
author = "McFarland, {Edward G} and Mike Wasik",
year = "1996",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "6",
pages = "178--182",
journal = "Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine",
issn = "1050-642X",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Injuries in female collegiate swimmers due to swimming and cross training

AU - McFarland, Edward G

AU - Wasik, Mike

PY - 1996

Y1 - 1996

N2 - Objective: To identify and compare the nature and frequency of training and cross-training injuries incurred by members of a women's collegiate swim team. Design: A longitudinal survey of training-room and medical records for 7 years, classifying injuries by diagnosis and time lost from participation. Setting: Division I women's collegiate swimming program, United States. Participants: All swimmers in a Division I women's collegiate swimming program over 7 years, for a total of 68 swimmers. Assessment of Risk Factors: Not applicable. Intervention: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: 'Injury' was defined as any contact with a trainer or physician that resulted in evaluation or treatment. Each injury was categorized with respect to (a) activity during which injury was incurred; (b) diagnosis, including body part injured; (c) time lost from participation in practice or competition; and (d) severity, i.e., minor (≤ 7 days), moderate (7-21 days), and major (> 21 days). An 'Exposure' was defined as participation in one practice session or competition. Main Results: The overall injury rate per 1,000 exposures per athlete was 2.12; 44% of injuries were due to swimming, 44% to cross training, and 11% to activities unrelated to athletics. Cross-training injuries occurred primarily in the lower extremities, while swimming injuries occurred more commonly in the upper extremities. The ratio of upper to lower extremity injuries due to swimming was 3:1, whereas the ratio for cross training was 1:4. Conclusions: Injuries to swimmers occur at a lower rate per exposure than to other collegiate athletic populations. Swimming injuries occurred primarily in the upper extremities, especially the shoulder. Lower extremity injuries occurred primarily due to cross training. We conclude that swimming is relatively safe compared to other collegiate sports, but special care should be used in designing injury-avoiding cross-training programs.

AB - Objective: To identify and compare the nature and frequency of training and cross-training injuries incurred by members of a women's collegiate swim team. Design: A longitudinal survey of training-room and medical records for 7 years, classifying injuries by diagnosis and time lost from participation. Setting: Division I women's collegiate swimming program, United States. Participants: All swimmers in a Division I women's collegiate swimming program over 7 years, for a total of 68 swimmers. Assessment of Risk Factors: Not applicable. Intervention: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: 'Injury' was defined as any contact with a trainer or physician that resulted in evaluation or treatment. Each injury was categorized with respect to (a) activity during which injury was incurred; (b) diagnosis, including body part injured; (c) time lost from participation in practice or competition; and (d) severity, i.e., minor (≤ 7 days), moderate (7-21 days), and major (> 21 days). An 'Exposure' was defined as participation in one practice session or competition. Main Results: The overall injury rate per 1,000 exposures per athlete was 2.12; 44% of injuries were due to swimming, 44% to cross training, and 11% to activities unrelated to athletics. Cross-training injuries occurred primarily in the lower extremities, while swimming injuries occurred more commonly in the upper extremities. The ratio of upper to lower extremity injuries due to swimming was 3:1, whereas the ratio for cross training was 1:4. Conclusions: Injuries to swimmers occur at a lower rate per exposure than to other collegiate athletic populations. Swimming injuries occurred primarily in the upper extremities, especially the shoulder. Lower extremity injuries occurred primarily due to cross training. We conclude that swimming is relatively safe compared to other collegiate sports, but special care should be used in designing injury-avoiding cross-training programs.

KW - Cross training

KW - Injuries

KW - Swimmers

KW - Women collegiate athletes

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0029894162&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0029894162&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 6

SP - 178

EP - 182

JO - Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine

JF - Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine

SN - 1050-642X

IS - 3

ER -