Background: Systemic administration of heparin can decrease mortality and morbidity of acute ischemic coronary syndromes such as unstable angina and myocardial infarction. Hemorrhage is the major limiting factor in the clinical use of systemic heparin. The objective of the present study was to determine whether local delivery of heparin could inhibit platelet-dependent thrombosis without altering systemic bleeding parameters. Methods and Results: Hydrogel-coated angioplasty balloon catheters were dipped in a heparin solution, dried, and applied to a platelet-rich mural thrombus in a chronic ex vivo porcine arteriovenous shunt. 111In-labeled platelet deposition was quantified by gamma camera imaging. In a separate series of experiments, 3H-heparin was used to estimate the amount of heparin delivered to the thrombus with the coated balloon. Systemic heparin administration produced a dose-dependent decrease in platelet-dependent thrombus formation that was maximal at 200 units/kg. Bleeding times and activated partial thromboplastin times were prolonged at this dose. An equal inhibition of thrombus formation was achieved after the coated balloon was dipped in a heparin solution (10 000 units/mL) and deployed at the mural thrombus. In contrast to systemic heparin administration, there was no alteration in bleeding parameters associated with local heparin delivery. The estimated amount of heparin delivered with the coated balloon was 40 units. Conclusions: Local delivery of heparin in amounts sufficient to inhibit platelet-dependent thrombosis can be accomplished with a hydrogel-coated coronary angioplasty balloon catheter. Local heparin delivery can inhibit thrombus formation in amounts that are several orders of magnitude lower than the required systemic dose. Local delivery of heparin was not associated with prolongation of bleeding parameters.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)