Objective: To determine what information sources are used during a remote diagnosis task. Materials and Methods: Experienced trauma care providers viewed segments of videotaped initial trauma patient resuscitation and airway management. Experiment 1 collected responses from anesthesiologists to probing questions during and after the presentation of recorded video materials. Experiment 2 collected the responses from three types of care providers (anesthesiologists, nurses, and surgeons). Written and verbal responses were scored according to detection of critical events in video materials and categorized according to their content. Experiment 3 collected visual scanning data using an eyetracker during the viewing of recorded video materials from the three types of care providers. Eye-gaze data were analyzed in terms of focus on various parts of the videotaped materials. Results: Care providers were found to be unable to detect several critical events. The three groups of subjects studied (anesthesiologists, nurses, and surgeons) focused on different aspects of videotaped materials. Conclusion: When the remote events and activities are multidisciplinary and rapidly changing, experts linked with audio-video-data connections may encounter difficulties in comprehending remote activities, and their information usage may be biased. Special training is needed for the remote decision-maker to appreciate tasks outside his or her speciality and beyond the boundaries of traditional divisions of labor.
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