Influenza virus assembly and lipid raft microdomains: A role for the cytoplasmic tails of the spike glycoproteins

Jie Zhang, Andrew Pekosz, Robert A. Lamb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

299 Scopus citations


Influenza viruses encoding hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins with deletions in one or both cytoplasmic tails (HAt- or NAt-) have a reduced association with detergent-insoluble glycolipids (DIGs). Mutations which eliminated various combinations of the three palmitoylation sites in HA exhibited reduced amounts of DIG-associated HA in virus-infected cells. The influenza virus matrix (M1) protein was also found to be associated with DIGs, but this association was decreased in cells infected with HAt- or NAt-virus. Regardless of the amount of DIG-associated protein, the HA and NA glycoproteins were targeted primarily to the apical surface of virus-infected, polarized cells. The uncoupling of DIG association and apical transport was augmented by the observation that the influenza A virus M2 protein as well as the influenza C virus HA-esterase-fusion glycoprotein were not associated with DIGs but were apically targeted. The reduced DIG association of HAt- and NAt- is an intrinsic property of the glycoproteins, as similar reductions in DIG association were observed when the proteins were expressed from cDNA. Examination of purified virions indicated reduced amounts of DIG-associated lipids in the envelope of HAt- and NAt- viruses. The data indicate that deletion of both the HA and NA cytoplasmic tails results in reduced BIG association and changes in both virus polypeptide and lipid composition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4634-4644
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of virology
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Insect Science
  • Virology


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