Influenza among Young Children in Bangladesh: Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes from a Randomized Clinical Trial

Elizabeth Rotrosen, K. Zaman, Jodi Feser, Justin R. Ortiz, Doli Goswami, Amina Tahia Sharmeen, Mustafizur Rahman, Kristen D.C. Lewis, Md Ziaur Rahman, Burc Barin, W Abdullah Brooks, Kathleen M. Neuzil

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Abstract

Background Influenza causes substantial morbidity in children worldwide, although influenza vaccine is seldom used in low-resource settings. More information on the clinical presentation of influenza and the efficacy of vaccine is needed to inform policy. Methods In 2013 we conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in children aged 24-59 months in Bangladesh (N = 1761). If participants met prespecified specimen collection criteria, we collected nasopharyngeal washes for testing by singleplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection (LCI). A panel of RT-PCR assays was used to detect noninfluenza respiratory viruses. Primary efficacy results have been reported. In this analysis of prespecified and post hoc objectives from the trial, we compared signs and symptoms between LCI and non-LCI cases and estimated the efficacy of LAIV against moderate-to-severe LCI and other prespecified non-LCI clinical outcomes including all-cause pneumonia and acute otitis media. Results The most common signs and symptoms of LCI were fever, cough, and runny nose. The combination of subjective fever and cough had a 63% sensitivity for LCI. The combination of measured fever, cough, and runny nose was most specific (90%) but had low sensitivity (32%) for LCI. The efficacy of LAIV against vaccine-strain moderate-to-severe LCI was 56.7% (95% confidence interval, 9.5%-79.2%). No statistically significant vaccine efficacy was found against the non-laboratory-confirmed clinical outcomes. Conclusions It was not possible to distinguish LCI from noninfluenza viral infections on clinical evaluations alone in this population of Bangladeshi children. LAIV was efficacious against moderate-to-severe LCI. Clinical Trials Registration NCT01797029.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1914-1920
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume65
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017

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Keywords

  • developing country
  • influenza
  • influenza-like illness
  • live attenuated influenza vaccine
  • pediatrics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Rotrosen, E., Zaman, K., Feser, J., Ortiz, J. R., Goswami, D., Sharmeen, A. T., Rahman, M., Lewis, K. D. C., Rahman, M. Z., Barin, B., Brooks, W. A., & Neuzil, K. M. (2017). Influenza among Young Children in Bangladesh: Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes from a Randomized Clinical Trial. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 65(11), 1914-1920. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix674