Influenza A and D viruses in non-human mammalian hosts in Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Annie Kalonda, Marvin Phonera, Ngonda Saasa, Masahiro Kajihara, Catherine G. Sutcliffe, Hirofumi Sawa, Ayato Takada, Edgar Simulundu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the prevalence and current knowledge of influenza A virus (IAV) and influenza D virus (IDV) in non-human mammalian hosts in Africa. PubMed, Google Scholar, Wiley Online Library and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE-WAHIS) were searched for studies on IAV and IDV from 2000 to 2020. Pooled prevalence and seroprevalences were estimated using the quality effects meta-analysis model. The estimated pooled prevalence and seroprevalence of IAV in pigs in Africa was 1.6% (95% CI: 0–5%) and 14.9% (95% CI: 5–28%), respectively. The seroprevalence of IDV was 87.2% (95% CI: 24–100%) in camels, 9.3% (95% CI: 0–24%) in cattle, 2.2% (95% CI: 0–4%) in small ruminants and 0.0% (95% CI: 0–2%) in pigs. In pigs, H1N1 and H1N1pdm09 IAVs were commonly detected. Notably, the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus was also detected in pigs. Other subtypes detected serologically and/or virologically included H3N8 and H7N7 in equids, H1N1, and H3N8 and H5N1 in dogs and cats. Furthermore, various wildlife animals were exposed to different IAV subtypes. For prudent mitigation of influenza epizootics and possible human infections, influenza surveillance efforts in Africa should not neglect non-human mammalian hosts. The impact of IAV and IDV in non-human mammalian hosts in Africa deserves further investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2411
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Africa
  • Animal influenza
  • Influenza A virus
  • Influenza D virus
  • Prevalence
  • Seroprevalence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology


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