Influence of corneal structure, corneal responsiveness, and other ocular parameters on tonometric measurement of intraocular pressure

Aimee Teo Broman, Nathan G. Congdon, Karen Bandeen-Roche, Harry A. Quigley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

127 Scopus citations


PURPOSE: To estimate the relationships between ocular parameters and tonometrically measured intraocular pressure (IOP), to determine the influence of ocular parameters on different instrument measurements of IOP, and to evaluate the association of ocular parameters with a parameter called hysteresis. METHODS: Patients presenting at a glaucoma clinic were recruited for this study. Subjects underwent IOP measurement with the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), the TonoPen, and the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA), and also measurements of central corneal thickness (CCT), axial length, corneal curvature, corneal astigmatism, central visual acuity, and refractive error. Chart information was reviewed to determine glaucoma treatment history. The ORA instrument provided a measurement called corneal hysteresis. The association between measured IOP and the other ocular characteristics was estimated using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Among 230 patients, IOP measurements from the TonoPen read lowest, and ORA read highest, and GAT measurements were closest to the mean IOP of the 3 instruments. In a multiple regression model adjusting for age, sex, race, and other ocular characteristics, a 10 μm increase in CCT was associated with an increase of 0.79 mm Hg measured IOP in untreated eyes (P<0.0001). Of the 3 tonometers, GAT was the least affected by CCT (0.66 mm Hg/10 μm, P<0.0001). Hysteresis was significantly correlated with CCT with a modest correlation coefficient (r=0.20, P<0.0007). CONCLUSIONS: Among parameters related to measured IOP, features in addition to CCT, such as hysteresis and corneal curvature, may also be important. Tonometric instruments seem to be affected differently by various physiologic characteristics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)581-588
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of glaucoma
Issue number7
StatePublished - Oct 1 2007


  • Corneal thickness
  • Tonometry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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