Inflammatory responses occur rapidly after intracerebral hemorrhage and participate in both short-term toxicity and long-term recovery. Microglia/macrophages react to hemorrhagic injury and exhibit dynamic phenotypes and phagocytic capability. Astrocytes secrete cytokines, chemokines, and gliotransmitters that can regulate neuroinflammation. In addition, infiltrating neutrophils and T-lymphocytes modulate immunoreactions, which further cross-talk with microglia/macrophages. Thus, the search for effective immunotherapy to target specific cell type-mediated inflammation might represent a new direction for intracerebral hemorrhage treatment, separate from traditional anti-inflammatory drug discovery.
- intracerebral hemorrhage
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine