Infections as Adjuvants for Autoimmunity: The Adjuvant Effect

Quan M. Nhu, Noel R. Rose

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced vaccination, in which prior inoculation with cowpox (vaccinia) protected against a subsequent infection with smallpox in humans. Recent understanding of innate immune pattern recognition of pathogens has helped explain the "adjuvant effect". The term "adjuvant effect" was first applied to the critical role of mycobacteria in the Freund's adjuvant used to induce experimental thyroiditis. While adjuvants are often empirical microbial components, possessing potent bioactivities, infectious agents naturally generate their own adjuvant effect and can induce autoimmunity. Briefly, human Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play crucial roles in the innate immune responses against potentially harmful microorganisms, in addition to being biosensors of tissue damage. The nonclonal augmentation of autoimmunity by the adjuvant effect can be harnessed to boost anticancer immune responses. Adjuvants and natural infections can exert potent immunostimulatory activities through the adjuvant effect, which can lead to autoimmune disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationVaccines and Autoimmunity
PublisherWiley Blackwell
Pages25-34
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9781118663721
ISBN (Print)9781118663431
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

Fingerprint

Autoimmunity
Cowpox
Vaccinia
Thyroiditis
Smallpox
Freund's Adjuvant
Toll-Like Receptors
Biosensing Techniques
Mycobacterium
Infection
Innate Immunity
Autoimmune Diseases
Vaccination

Keywords

  • Adjuvant effect
  • Adjuvants
  • Autoimmunity
  • Human Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
  • Innate immune pattern recognition
  • Innate immune responses
  • Smallpox infections

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)

Cite this

Nhu, Q. M., & Rose, N. R. (2014). Infections as Adjuvants for Autoimmunity: The Adjuvant Effect. In Vaccines and Autoimmunity (pp. 25-34). Wiley Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118663721.ch2

Infections as Adjuvants for Autoimmunity : The Adjuvant Effect. / Nhu, Quan M.; Rose, Noel R.

Vaccines and Autoimmunity. Wiley Blackwell, 2014. p. 25-34.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Nhu, QM & Rose, NR 2014, Infections as Adjuvants for Autoimmunity: The Adjuvant Effect. in Vaccines and Autoimmunity. Wiley Blackwell, pp. 25-34. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118663721.ch2
Nhu QM, Rose NR. Infections as Adjuvants for Autoimmunity: The Adjuvant Effect. In Vaccines and Autoimmunity. Wiley Blackwell. 2014. p. 25-34 https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118663721.ch2
Nhu, Quan M. ; Rose, Noel R. / Infections as Adjuvants for Autoimmunity : The Adjuvant Effect. Vaccines and Autoimmunity. Wiley Blackwell, 2014. pp. 25-34
@inbook{ea1aeed667b640099588b83dae2e300c,
title = "Infections as Adjuvants for Autoimmunity: The Adjuvant Effect",
abstract = "In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced vaccination, in which prior inoculation with cowpox (vaccinia) protected against a subsequent infection with smallpox in humans. Recent understanding of innate immune pattern recognition of pathogens has helped explain the {"}adjuvant effect{"}. The term {"}adjuvant effect{"} was first applied to the critical role of mycobacteria in the Freund's adjuvant used to induce experimental thyroiditis. While adjuvants are often empirical microbial components, possessing potent bioactivities, infectious agents naturally generate their own adjuvant effect and can induce autoimmunity. Briefly, human Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play crucial roles in the innate immune responses against potentially harmful microorganisms, in addition to being biosensors of tissue damage. The nonclonal augmentation of autoimmunity by the adjuvant effect can be harnessed to boost anticancer immune responses. Adjuvants and natural infections can exert potent immunostimulatory activities through the adjuvant effect, which can lead to autoimmune disease.",
keywords = "Adjuvant effect, Adjuvants, Autoimmunity, Human Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Innate immune pattern recognition, Innate immune responses, Smallpox infections",
author = "Nhu, {Quan M.} and Rose, {Noel R.}",
year = "2014",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/9781118663721.ch2",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9781118663431",
pages = "25--34",
booktitle = "Vaccines and Autoimmunity",
publisher = "Wiley Blackwell",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - Infections as Adjuvants for Autoimmunity

T2 - The Adjuvant Effect

AU - Nhu, Quan M.

AU - Rose, Noel R.

PY - 2014/1/1

Y1 - 2014/1/1

N2 - In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced vaccination, in which prior inoculation with cowpox (vaccinia) protected against a subsequent infection with smallpox in humans. Recent understanding of innate immune pattern recognition of pathogens has helped explain the "adjuvant effect". The term "adjuvant effect" was first applied to the critical role of mycobacteria in the Freund's adjuvant used to induce experimental thyroiditis. While adjuvants are often empirical microbial components, possessing potent bioactivities, infectious agents naturally generate their own adjuvant effect and can induce autoimmunity. Briefly, human Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play crucial roles in the innate immune responses against potentially harmful microorganisms, in addition to being biosensors of tissue damage. The nonclonal augmentation of autoimmunity by the adjuvant effect can be harnessed to boost anticancer immune responses. Adjuvants and natural infections can exert potent immunostimulatory activities through the adjuvant effect, which can lead to autoimmune disease.

AB - In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced vaccination, in which prior inoculation with cowpox (vaccinia) protected against a subsequent infection with smallpox in humans. Recent understanding of innate immune pattern recognition of pathogens has helped explain the "adjuvant effect". The term "adjuvant effect" was first applied to the critical role of mycobacteria in the Freund's adjuvant used to induce experimental thyroiditis. While adjuvants are often empirical microbial components, possessing potent bioactivities, infectious agents naturally generate their own adjuvant effect and can induce autoimmunity. Briefly, human Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play crucial roles in the innate immune responses against potentially harmful microorganisms, in addition to being biosensors of tissue damage. The nonclonal augmentation of autoimmunity by the adjuvant effect can be harnessed to boost anticancer immune responses. Adjuvants and natural infections can exert potent immunostimulatory activities through the adjuvant effect, which can lead to autoimmune disease.

KW - Adjuvant effect

KW - Adjuvants

KW - Autoimmunity

KW - Human Toll-like receptors (TLRs)

KW - Innate immune pattern recognition

KW - Innate immune responses

KW - Smallpox infections

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85026293671&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85026293671&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/9781118663721.ch2

DO - 10.1002/9781118663721.ch2

M3 - Chapter

AN - SCOPUS:85026293671

SN - 9781118663431

SP - 25

EP - 34

BT - Vaccines and Autoimmunity

PB - Wiley Blackwell

ER -