Increased rates of respiratory and diarrheal illnesses in HIV-negative persons living with HIV-infected individuals in a densely populated urban slum in Kenya

Joshua M. Wong, Leonard Cosmas, Dhillon Nyachieo, John M. Williamson, Beatrice Olack, George Okoth, Henry Njuguna, Daniel R. Feikin, Heather Burke, Joel M. Montgomery, Robert F. Breiman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Prolonged pathogen shedding and increased duration of illness associated with infections in immunosuppressed individuals put close human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative contacts of HIV-infected persons at increased risk of exposure to infectious pathogens. Methods: We calculated incidence and longitudinal prevalence (number of days per year) of influenzalike illness (ILI), diarrhea, and nonspecific febrile illness during 2008 from a population-based surveillance program in the urban slum of Kibera (Kenya) that included 1830 HIV-negative household contacts of HIV-infected individuals and 13 677 individuals living in exclusively HIV-negative households. Results: For individuals ≥5 years old, incidence was significantly increased for ILI (risk ratio [RR], 1.47; P < .05) and diarrhea (RR, 1.41; P < .05) in HIV-negative household contacts of HIV-infected individuals compared with exclusively HIV-negative households. The risk of illness among HIV-negative persons was directly proportional to the number of HIV-infected persons living in the home for ILI (RR, 1.39; P < .05) and diarrhea (RR, 1.36; P < .01). We found no increased rates of illness in children <5 years old who lived with HIV-infected individuals. Conclusions: Living with HIV-infected individuals is associated with modestly increased rates of respiratory and diarrheal infections in HIV-negative individuals >5 years old. Targeted interventions are needed, including ensuring that HIV-infected persons are receiving appropriate care and treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)745-753
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume212
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Acute lower respiratory infection
  • Africa
  • Diarrhea
  • HIV
  • Home-based counseling and testing
  • Household transmission
  • ILI
  • Incidence rates
  • Influenzalike illness
  • Kibera
  • Nonspecific febrile illness
  • Nonspecific febrile illness
  • Pneumonia
  • Respiratory infection
  • Surveillance
  • Urban slum
  • alri

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases

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